Parijat is commonly known as Harsingar, and Night jasmine. The scientific name of the plant is Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Linn. It is one of the most useful traditional medicinal plants in India. Various parts of the plant like seeds, leaves, flowers, bark, and fruit of the plant have some medicinal value, and used in the folk remedy.
Table of Contents
- 1 Nyctanthes arbor tristis Plant
- 2 Taxonomical Classification
- 3 Vernacular Names of Night jasmine
- 4 Phyto-constituents
- 5 Biomedical Action of Leaf
- 6 Indications of Nyctanthes arbortristis
- 7 Leaf Dosage
- 8 Health Benefits of Nyctanthes arbortristis
- 9 Medicinal Uses of Parijat
- 10 Side effects
Parijat has hepatoprotective, anti-leishmaniasis, anti-viral, antifungal, anti-pyretic, anti-histaminic, anti-malarial, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant activities due to the presence of phytochemicals like flavanoid, glycoside, oleanic acid, essential oils, tannic acid, carotene, Friedline, lupeol, glucose, benzoic acid. The leaves have been found to contain tannic acid, methyl salicylate, amorphous glucosides, mannitol, resin, ascorbic acid, carotene, and traces of volatile oil.
Parijat Leaves are used in sciatica, chronic fever, cough, rheumatism, loss of appetite, piles, the liver disorders, biliary, disorders, chronic fever, obstinate sciatica, rheumatism, fever, and internal worm infections. Juice of the leaves is used as digestives, an antidote to reptile venoms, mild bitter tonic, laxative, diaphoretic, and diuretic. Leaves are also used in the enlargement of the spleen.
Juice of leaves acts as a cholagogue, laxative, and mild bitter tonic. The decoction of leaves is extensively used for the treatment of arthritis, obstinate sciatica, malaria, intestinal worms, and as a tonic.
The Parijat flowers have stomachic, carminative, astringent to bowel, antibilious, expectorant, and hair tonic action, and used in piles, skin diseases, ophthalmic purposes etc.
Nyctanthes arbor tristis Plant
Nyctanthes arbortristis is locally known as Harshingar, Har, Kuri, Shephalika, Gangasiuli, and Parijat. Parijat is a mall deciduous tree with dropping 4-angled branchlets. The leaves shed in February or March, and renewed in June-July. Flowering occurs in August with peaking in September-October. Fruit ripens in April-May.
- Bark: pale or dark grey in color, sometimes greenish, rough, and wrinkled.
- Leaves: in opposite pairs, dark green, very rough on the upper surface, paler, and hairy below, margins often large with distant teeth with pointed apex.
- Flowers: white in color with 5-8 petals at the end of the bright orange tube in clusters, and are highly fragrant.
- Fruits: flat, with round capsule bright green at first, and later turned brown.
It bears small white orange highly fragrant flowers, which bloom at night, and fall off before sunrise.
Parijat is distributed widely in sub-Himalayan regions, and Southwards to the Godavari. It belongs to the family Oleaceae. Latin name Nyctanthes has been coined from two Greek words Nykhta (Night), and anthos (flower). During the day the plant loses all its brightness, and hence is called Tree of sadness or arbor-tristis.
In Hindu mythology, Parijata is regarded as one of the five wish-granting trees of Devaloka. Traditionally the flowers are gathered for religious offerings, and to make garlands.
Parijat does well in a wide variety of loamy soils, and in soils found in average garden situations, with pH 5.6–7.5. It can be grown in full sunlight to partial shade. It needs water regularly.
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Division: Magnoliophyta
- Class: Magnoliopsida
- Order: Lamiales
- Family: Oleaceae
- Genus: Nyctanthes
- Species: arbor-tristis
- Binomial name: Nyctanthes arbor-tristis
Vernacular Names of Night jasmine
- Bengali: Harsinghar, Sephalika, Seoli, Sheoli
- English: Coral Jasmine, Night Jasmine
- Filipino: Coral Jasmine
- Gujarati: Jayaparvati, Parijatak
- Hindi: Harsinghar, Harsingur, Seoli, Sheoli, Sihau
- Indonesian: Srigading (Sundanese, Javanese)
- Kannada: Goli, Harsing, Parijata
- Konkani: Pardic, Parizatak, Parzonto, Parzot
- Lao (Tibetan): Salikaa
- Malay: Seri Gading
- Malayalam: Mannapu, Pavizhamalli, Parijatakom
- Marathi: Kharbadi, Kharassi, Khurasli, Parijatak
- Oriya: Godokodiko, Gunjoseyoli, Singaraharo
- Punjabi: Harsinghar
- Sanskrit: Parijata, Parijatah, Parijataka, Sephalika
- Tamil: Manjhapu, Pavala-Malligai, Pavazha-Malligai
- Telugu: Kapilanagadustu, Pagadamalle, Parijat, Sepali
- Thai: Karanikaa
- Urdu: Gulejafari, Harsingar
- Vietnamese: Iai Tau
Alkaloid nyctanthine along with nannitol, βAmyrin, β-Sitosterol, hentriacontane, benzoic acid, astragalin, nicotiflorin, oleanolicacid, nyctanthic acid, friedelin, lupeol, mannitol, astringent, resinous substances, ascorbic acid, coloring matters, sugar, and traces of an oily substance, tannic acid, methyl salicylate, carotene, an amorphous resin andtraces of volatile oil.
Apigenin, Anthocyanin, D-Mannitol, Tanninm, Glucose, Carotenoid, Essential Oil, Kaemferol, Nyctanthin, Glycosides, Quercetin, Rengylone, α-crocetin (or crocin-3), β-monogentiobioside, β-monogentiobioside-β-D, β-digentiobioside
Biomedical Action of Leaf
Indications of Nyctanthes arbortristis
- Reptile Venom
- The dried Leaf Powder is taken in a dose of 1-3 gram.
- Fresh juice can be consumed in a dose of 5-20 ml.
Health Benefits of Nyctanthes arbortristis
Every part of Nyctanthes arbortristis is used for medicinal purpose due to health benefitting properties. The seeds are used in the treatment of piles. The decoction of flowers, and leaf is used in the treatment of gout. Leaves juice is given in case of dry cough.
The paste of leaves is used externally in the treatment of skin related troubles specifically in the treatment of ringworm. The young leaves are used as a female tonic. Due to the hypoglycemic effect, it is also useful in diabetes.
Parijat has acute, and sub-acute anti-inflammatory activity. It is found to inhibit the inflammation produced by immunological methods.
Protects the liver
In scientific studies, the decoction of Parijat leaf is found to have anti-hepatotoxic activity against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxicity.
The alcoholic, and aqueous extracts protect the liver, and exhibit significant hepatoprotective activity by reducing the levels of SGPT (serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase), SGOT (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase), and serum bilirubin (total, and direct). It also helps in the regeneration of hepatocytes.
Calms the mind
The leaves, flowers, seeds, and barks of N. arbortristis exhibits significant, and dose-dependent prolongation of onset, and duration of sleep.
It decreases dopamine, and increase the serotonin level, and thus show CNS depressant activity.
The leaves decoction has significant aspirin-like activity, and this helps in managing the fever.
In one Clinical study on 120 patients of malaria, the fresh paste of medium sized 5 leaves of Parijat was given thrice a day for 7-10 days. This cured malaria in 92 patients within 7 days.
Other 20 patients were cured by 10 days while the remaining 8 patients did not respond to the treatment. The paste was well tolerated, and no severe side effects were reported.
Grows the hair
The seeds of the plant help in hair loss, and alopecia. The seed paste is applied on the scalp helps to grow new hair.
Good for Digestive system
Parijat is useful in constipation, intestinal worms, hepatomegaly, and piles. It has laxative action, and antispasmodic action. Fresh juice of the leaf in a dose of 10-15 ml, is given in cases of constipation, intestinal worms, hepatomegaly, and piles.
Medicinal Uses of Parijat
Parijat is useful in fever, worms, cough, sluggish the liver, and arthritis, and skin diseases. It increases the amount of semen. If its bark is eaten with paan, it cures cough. Its flowers give strength to mind, and reduce heat.
Parijat leaves for Arthritis, joint pain
Parijat leaf contains a significant amount of flavonoids which helps to reduce inflammation of joints. In the case of joint inflammation, you can take the extract of Parijat leaf, and Maharasnadi Ghan Vati.
Boil 5 to 11 leaves of Parijat in a glass of water till only cup liquid remains. Filter it, and drink empty stomach for 3 months in the morning. This decoction will help in arthritis, joint pain, and similar conditions.
Give a gap of 10 – 15 days, and again take for 3 months.
Parijat for Sciatica
Make a decoction of 3-4 Parijat leaves by boiling in one glass water. Or
Take the fresh juice of the leaf in a dose of 5 -10 ml.
Extract juice of 7-8 leaves of Harsingar, mix with ginger juice, and honey. Take twice a day, in the morning, and evening,
Extract juice of 7 – 8 soft tender leaves of Parijat. Take 5-10 ml of this juice with ginger juice, and honey in the morning, and evening helps in the old fever.
Joint pain after Chikungunya
Drinking decoction of Parijat leaves for 10-15 days is very useful.
Enlargement of Liver
Giving juice of 7-8 Harsingar leaves with ginger juice, and honey twice a day helps in this condition.
Leaf juice is mixed in honey, and given thrice daily for the treatment of cough.
Make a paste of leaves, and apply on affected area.
Extract juice of 7 – 8 soft tender leaves of Parijat. Take 5-10 ml juice with jaggery.
Hair fall (baldness disease)
Grinding the seed of Harsingar with water, and applying of the scalp can help.
Soak 2 grams of flowers in Harsingar in 30 ml water at night. In the morning, rub the flowers in water, and mix 1 teaspoon of sugar, and drink empty stomach. Do it regularly for 1 week.
- No side effect is known when taken in the recommended dose.
- It can reduce the blood sugar level in the diabetic patient. So monitor the sugar level.
- The leaf intake may cause nausea, and vomiting due to its bitter taste.
- Do not chew the leaf.
In clinical studies, the plant was evaluated for acute toxicity studies, and the result show a toxic effect in a dose-dependent manner. A high dose can have negative effects.
The person who grounded the dried leaves developed vesicles on both palms.
In rats, the toxic effect of ethanolic extract of leaves of N. arbortristis was noticed. An administration of ethanol extract of the leaves in a high dose (1, 2, and 4 gm/kg/day) orally for 6 consecutive days produced gastric ulcers in rats. This extract also showed irritant effects as it, dose-dependently. In high dose, it also shows the purgative effect.
when extract instilled into the rabbit‘s eye produced conjunctival congestion with edema.