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Meningitis is an infection that affects the meninges, the delicate membranes of the brain. The meninges is a membrane covering the brain and spinal cord. There are many types of meningitis that are dependent on the factors that cause it, bacteria, viral and fungal.
What is meningitis?
Infections in the brain and spinal cord can cause dangerous inflammation. It can cause many symptoms including swelling, fever, headache, seizures, behavioral changes or confusion and, in extreme cases, brain damage, stroke, or even death.
Infections of the meninges of the brain (the membranes around the brain and spinal cord) are called meningitis.
While inflammation of the brain is called encephalitis.
Types of meningitis
There are three types of meningitis, bacterial, viral and fungal.
Bacterial meningitis is the most dangerous and can spread between people in close contact with each other. It is a very serious disease and requires immediate medical attention, otherwise, it can be fatal or can cause brain damage without prompt treatment. In many cases, bacterial meningitis begins when bacteria enter the blood from the sinuses, ears, or throat, and then migrate from the bloodstream to the brain.
Bacterial meningitis is caused by several different bacteria:
- Streptococcus pneumonia
- Neisseria meningitidis
- Listeria monocytogenes (older people, pregnant women, or people with immune system problems)
Vaccines are available for Neisseria meningitidis and Streptococcus pneumonia and are recommended for all children as well as adults who have a higher risk of developing the disease.
The meningitis bacteria can spread while sneezing and coughing. If a person has this disease around, then take the necessary settings to avoid it.
Viral meningitis is less severe and most people recover well without treatment. Viral meningitis is caused by the virus.
Fungal meningitis is a rare form of the disease. It usually only occurs in people who have a weak immune system.
Someone with a problem with the immune system – for example – is more likely to be infected with this form of meningitis, due to AIDS.
Causes of Meningitis
Meningitis is almost always caused by a bacterial or viral infection that begins elsewhere in the body other than the brain, such as the ear, sinus, or throat.
Causes of meningitis include:
- Bacterial or viral infections
- Herpes virus
- Fungal infection
- Autoimmune disorder
- Cancer drugs
Who is more likely to get meningitis?
- Children under 5
- Adolescents and young adults aged 16-25
- Adults over 55
- Not damaged or spleen spleen
- Low immunity
- Chronic disease
Meningitis viruses and bacteria can spread easily, so the disease is prone to outbreaks in places where people live close to each other.
What are the symptoms of meningitis?
- Headache Headache
- Sensitivity to light (photophobia) from light
- Fever Slight fever
- Fatigue Fatigue
- Symptoms of bacterial meningitis
- Fever and chills, especially in newborns and children
- Mental symptoms change
- Nausea and vomiting
- Sensitivity to light
- Severe headache
- Neck strut
- in children
- Fontanelles emerge fontanelles
- Low vigilance
- Don’t drink milk
- Rapid breathing
- Abnormal posture, bending of head and neck (optototonic)
- Light sensitivity
What are the exams and tests available for meningitis?
The following symptoms can be seen by viewing:
- Pounding heart
- Change mental state
- Stiff neck
When meningitis is suspected, a sample of spinal fluid (cerebrospinal fluid or CSF) should be sent for testing.
Lumbar puncture is essential to confirm the diagnosis.
- Blood culture
- Chest x-ray
- Head scan
What is the treatment of meningitis?
Antibiotics are used to treat bacterial meningitis. Bacterial meningitis is usually more severe and requires hospital treatment with intravenous antibiotics. A particularly worrying type of bacterial meningitis is meningococcal meningitis. It can be life-threatening without any treatment.
It can take a long time to recover from bacterial meningitis, and sometimes long-term problems such as hearing loss can cause brain damage.
Antibiotics do not treat viral meningitis but those with herpes meningitis may be given antiviral medication.
There is no specific treatment available for viral meningitis, and most people recover comfortably and completely with extra fluids.
Other treatments will include:
Medications for the treatment of symptoms, such as encephalitis, and seizures
How can meningitis be prevented?
Some vaccines may help prevent some types of bacterial meningitis:
- Haemophilus vaccine (HiB vaccine) given to children Haemophilus vaccine (HiB vaccine) helps.
- Pneumococcal vaccine is a pneumococcal vaccine administered to children and adults.
- Meningococcal vaccines are meningococcal vaccines given to children and adults.
- In some places, vaccination campaigns are carried out after the outbreak of meningococcal meningitis.
Meningitis is Inflammation of the layers (meninges) covering the brain and spinal cord. It is an infection of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord.
The symptoms of the disease include headache, high fever, chills, backache, nausea and vomiting, neck stiffness, convulsions and sometimes coma.
Meningitis can be a life-threatening illness so urgent medical treatment is needed.
Treatment option of diseases involves Control of fever and pain with Paracetamol and giving antibiotics, such as Ampicillin, Penicillin. If unconscious, insert NGT for feeding and urethral catheter.
As a preventive step, children should be vaccinated.