Encephalitis is a serious brain disease in which there is inflammation in the brain. It is an acute disease whose symptoms appear suddenly and increase rapidly. A person suffering from encephalitis needs serious medical attention.
Encephalitis can be life-threatening and requires the necessary treatment in the hospital. It is an infection in the brain due to many reasons.
What is encephalitis?
Infections in the brain and spinal cord can cause dangerous inflammation. It can cause many symptoms including swelling, fever, headache, seizures, behavioral changes or confusion and, in extreme cases, brain damage, stroke, or even death.
Infections of the meninges of the brain (the membranes around the brain and spinal cord) are called meningitis.
While inflammation of the brain is called encephalitis.
What are the causes of Encephalitis?
Encephalitis can occur in people of any age, but children and the elderly are at greater risk of suffering from the disease.
Encephalitis may be induced by a bacterial infection, parasites or other infectious diseases.
Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, rabies virus, arbovirus, West Nile virus is transmitted to humans through infected bites of mosquitoes or another blood-sucking insect. Common causes are enteroviruses, herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, rabies virus, arboviruses such as West Nile virus, which are transmitted from infected animals to humans through the bite of an infected tick, mosquito, or another blood-sucking insect.
Herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) is responsible for about 10 percent of all encephalitis cases. HSE can affect any age group due to herpes simplex virus type 1, but it is often seen in individuals under 20 years of age or under 40 years of age. This rapidly progressive disease is the most important symptom of encephalitis are fever for up to 5 days, subsequent personality and behavior changes, seizures, hallucinations and altered levels of consciousness.
Herpes simplex 2 viruses (genital herpes) is most commonly transmitted through sexual contact. Many people do not know that they are infected and cannot have active genital lesions. An infected mother can transmit the disease to her child at birth. In newborns, symptoms such as lethargy, irritability, tremors, seizures and the like develop within 4 to 11 days of delivery.
What is Japanese Encephalitis Japanese Encephalitis?
One of the most common forms of viral encephalitis in Asia is the Japanese encephalitis virus, which is caused by the mosquito-borne flavivirus. The disease belongs to the genus Dengue, Yellow and West Nile Virus.
Japanese encephalitis virus affects children primarily because adults have immunity against it, which is not found in children.
The disease usually begins with mild symptoms such as fever and headache. In about 1 out of 250 cases, the disease worsens and sudden fever, headache, stiffness, disorientation, coma and seizures occur.
Symptoms of Encephalitis?
Encephalitis sometimes begins with flu-like symptoms, such as high temperatures and headaches, but these do not always occur.
More severe symptoms develop over hours, days or weeks including:
- Confusion or disorientation
- Seizures (fits)
- Changes in personality and behavior changes in personality and behavior
- Difficulty speaking
- Weakness or loss of movement in some parts of the body
- Fainting loss of consciousness
Causes of Encephalitis?
It is not always clear what causes encephalitis. But its reasons include:
Viral infection – Many common viruses can spread to the brain and in rare cases cause encephalitis, including herpes simplex virus and chicken virus. Encephalitis caused by herpes simplex virus is the leading cause of the disease in people of all ages and in newborns.
Some types of encephalitis are contagious and are spread through saliva, nose, feces, or respiratory and throat secretions (often kisses, coughs), utensils or personal items such as toothbrushes, lipsticks, or cigarettes.
Viruses can also enter the body in the following ways:
- Breathing in droplets from the nose, mouth, or throat from an infected person
- Contaminated food or drink Contaminated food or drink
- Mosquito, tick, and other insect bites Mosquito, tick, and other insect bites
- Skin contact
- Different places have different viruses. Many cases occur during a certain season.
- Problems in the immune system – Sometimes something goes wrong in the immune system and it accidentally attacks the brain, which can lead to inflammation.
Bacterial or fungal infections – These are very rare causes of encephalitis from viral infections.
Some types of encephalitis are spread by mosquitoes (such as Japanese encephalitis), ticks (such as tick-borne encephalitis) and mammals (such as rabies).
Is Encephalitis disease prevalent in India Prevalence in India? How serious is it?
Japanese encephalitis is considered the leading cause of the disease in India. The Japanese encephalitis virus was first recognized in the country in 1955 by the Indian Council of Medical Research. It then spread to the Arket district of northern Tamil Nadu. In 1972 the disease was seen in new areas such as West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Manipur, Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Pondicherry, and Karnataka.
In 2012, at least 272 cases were reported in Orissa including 24 deaths. As of 2014, at least 550 cases of encephalitis deaths were reported in the country. At least 102 people died in West Bengal and in 2014, 43 people died in Assam.
Uttar Pradesh and Bihar are the two states that have seen the highest number of encephalitis cases in recent years.
What are the available treatments for encephalitis?
When doctors diagnose the disease, they try to find out if it is a viral infection or is due to another. Doctors often prescribe steroid injections, antibiotics or analgesics depending on the cause.
Viral encephalitis cannot be treated and doctors usually try to treat the symptoms caused by the disease through drugs. It is very important to reduce fever through medication and reduce pressure due to inflammation of the brain. Antiviral drugs used for the treatment of viral encephalitis include acyclovir and ganciclovir acyclovir and ganciclovir.
Encephalitis needs to be treated in the hospital before treatment has started, it is likely to be more successful.
Treatment depends on the underlying cause, but may include:
- Antiviral medication antiviral medication
- Steroid injection steroid injections
- Treatment to help control the immune system to help control the immune system
- Antibiotic or antifungal medication antibiotics or antifungal medication
- Painkillers to reduce discomfort or fever to reduce discomfort or fever
- Medication to control seizures (fits) to control seizures
- Providing oxygen in breathing problem or ventilator support with breathing, such as oxygen through a face mask or a breathing machine (ventilator)
- Hospitalization may require a few days to several weeks or even months.
- It can take a long time to recover from encephalitis. This can also cause brain damage. These problems can have a significant impact on the life of the affected person, as well as their family and friends.
Common complications from encephalitis include:
- Memory loss memory loss
- Frequent seizures
- Personality and behavior change personality and behavioral changes
- Problems with attention, concentration, planning, and problem-solving problems with attention, concentration, planning, and problem-solving
Chronic fatigue persistent tiredness
Prevention of Encephalitis Disease
- It is not always possible to prevent encephalitis, but vaccination can avoid infection due to some reasons.
- MMR (measles, feces, and rubella) vaccine MMR (measles, mumps, and rubella) vaccine
- Japanese encephalitis vaccine Japanese encephalitis vaccine
- Tick-borne encephalitis vaccine tick-borne encephalitis vaccine
- Rabies vaccination – rabies vaccination in danger areas
- Other Useful Prevention Tips
- Do not share food, utensils, glasses and other items.
- Wash hands frequently with soap and rinses with water.
Avoid mosquito bites. Put on mosquito nets, mosquito transplant cream, and full clothing.
Encephalitis is an inflammation of the brain. This inflammation can produce a wide range of symptoms, including fever, headache, seizures, change in behavior or confusion and, in extreme cases, can cause brain damage, stroke, or even death.
Usually, Encephalitis is a viral infection, but bacteria can also cause it. It can be mild or severe. In babies, symptoms may include constant crying, poor feeding, body stiffness, and bulging in the soft spots of the skull.
Severe cases may require a stay in the hospital. Treatments include oral and intravenous (IV) medicines to reduce inflammation and treat the infection. Patients with breathing difficulties may need artificial respiration. Some people may need physical, speech, and occupational therapy once the illness is under control.