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Diabetes mellitus is a disease in which the body does not produce the required quantity of insulin (a hormone needed to convert sugar into energy) or fails to utilize it properly and this results in elevated blood sugar levels. The sugar level first increases in blood and then in urine. Loss of glucose causes the body to use the fat and proteins as alternate energy sources leading to rapid weight loss. For the majority of people, the fasting blood sugar on awakening should be under 100 mg/dl. Before-meal normal sugars are 70–99 mg/dl. Postprandial sugars taken two hours after meals should be less than 130 mg/dl. So, the recommended range without diabetes is 70 to 130mg/dL. In case, fasting blood glucose level is between 100 and 125mg/dL, the person is prediabetic. A fasting blood glucose level of 126 mg/dl or higher means a person has diabetes.
Diabetes can be with symptoms or without symptoms. The symptoms include polyphagia (excessive hunger), polydipsia (excessive thirst), and polyuria (too much urination). Diabetes mellitus affects every body organ and causes complications like nerve damage, blindness, and even kidney failure. It is also one of the
major causes of strokes and heart attacks. Obesity, sedentary lifestyle, genetics, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol level increases the risk of diabetes.
SIGNS & SYMPTOMS OF DIABETES
- Blurred vision
- Burning pain or numb feeling in the feet/hands
- Dry skin
- Dry tongue
- Extreme hunger (Polyphagia)
- Frequent urination (Polyuria)
- Fungal infections
- Increased breathing
- Itching of private parts
- Loss of weight
- Non-healing ulcer or skin infections
- Profuse thirst (Polydipsia)
- Sudden/dramatic weight loss
- Sunken eyeballs
- Weakness/ easy fatigue
COMPLICATIONS OF DIABETES
- Alternate diarrhea and obstinate constipation
- Boils, ulcers, carbuncles, fungal infections
- Foot gangrene
- Heart attack and Heart failure
- Kidney failure
- Peripheral neuropathy (nerves-related problems)
Diet Regime in Diabetes
It should be kept in mind that Type 1 diabetes which is also known as Insulin-dependent cannot be treated with diet alone. Type 2 diabetes can sometimes be treated with diet and exercise alone.
A diabetic diet should be naturally rich in nutrients and low in fat and calories. A diabetic patient should three meals a day at regular times.
The main aim of a patient suffering from diabetes should be-
- Try to maintain near-normal blood glucose levels.
- To achieve optimal serum lipid levels.
- To maintain a reasonable weight for adults.
- To have normal growth and development in children and adolescents.
- To take proper care and treatment of acute diseases like low glucose level and
- diabetes-related complications like high blood tension, kidney, and heart-related diseases.
- To keep cholesterol and triglycerides, LDL and HDL at desired levels
Diet in diabetes
The control of carbohydrates is a must for diabetes patients.
Carbohydrates are found in starches, grains, cereals, bread, fruits, milk, yogurt, vegetables, and sugars. In older times, the doctor used to advise the patient to avoid sugar or simple carbohydrates. But in recent research, has shown that modest amounts of sugar along with a healthy meal plan can be taken.
Patient with type 1 diabetes-
Insulin dose must be balanced with carbohydrate intake. This insulin dose is adjusted to the amount of carbohydrate in the meal.
The normal carbohydrate intake for normal human beings is 130 gms per day. Always take healthy carbohydrates such as whole grains, beans, peas and lentils, and low-fat dairy products.
Sugar should also be included in a balanced diet. It should be kept in mind that sugar when consumed with fat and grain its effect is different from when consumed alone. It is seen that fat delays digestion. It should be kept in mind that liquid sugars in sweets and sodas can cause a rapid rise in blood glucose. Sweets and desserts should be kept away from home.
Fiber For a normal individual is 14 grams per 1,000 calories. Food with more than grams of fiber is a good choice to eat.
Whole grain with a good source of fiber is brown rice, oatmeal, barley, millet, and whole-grain bread, pasta. High protein diets are not recommended for patients with diabetes.
The patient should encourage restriction of saturated, hydrogenated, and trans-fatty acids as they can increase low-density lipoprotein (LDL).
Replacing saturated fat with unsaturated fat has a beneficial effect on insulin sensitivity.
The use of processed meat is harmful to diabetic patients.
Dietary cholesterol should be limited to less than 200 mg/day.
Alcohol drinking should be strictly prohibited as it lowers blood sugar. Alcohol is very toxic in nature, so our body wants to quickly break it down into by-products. Alcohol is metabolized into acetaldehyde which changes into fat. The formation of new glucose by the liver is diminished hence lowering the glucose. If a person with diabetes takes alcohol along with medicine for diabetes his blood sugar can drop to a dangerous level.
Salt Use of extra salt should be avoided. Also, the use of processed foods should be avoided.
PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND PRECAUTIONS
- Make sure your shoes fitted well and your socks stay clean and dry. There should feet for redness or sores after exercising.
- Warm-up and stretch for 5 to 10 minutes before exercise.
- Cool down for several minutes after exercise.
- Walk slowly at first, stretch, and then walk faster. Finish up by walking slowly again.
- A doctor’s recommendation is needed for exercise if blood glucose level is high.
- Always carry food or glucose tablets to treat low blood glucose if a person has a problem with low sugar levels.
A low glucose level can be easily checked by a person if the person feels shaky, weak, confused, irritable, hungry or tired, a lot of sweat, or headache.
When a person is sick
- He should check his blood glucose level every 4 hours.
- Keep taking diabetes medicines.
- If the usual food cannot be taken, then juice or soup can be taken.
WARNING SIGNS IN DIABETES
- If blood glucose is above 240 for longer than a day.
- If a person feels sleepier than usual.
- If a person has trouble breathing
- If he can’t think clearly
- If vomiting is more than once
- If a person has diarrhea for more than 6 hours.
HOMEOPATHIC MEDICINES IN DIABETES
There are many Homeopathic medicines that help to control diabetes. The treatment is dependent is specific for an individual on the basis of signs and symptoms and several other factors. These medicine helps to control the sugar level and improves general well-being.
Following classical medicines are indicated in diabetes.
- Abroma Augusta
- Acetic acid
- Argentum met
- Argentum nitricum
- Arnica montana
- Arsenicum album
- Bryonia alba
- Cephalandra indica
- Gymnema Sylvestre
- Helonias dioica
- Iris versicolor
- Syzygium jambolanum
- Thuja occidentalis
Below is given a list of medicines available from different pharmacies specifically for diabetes management.
- Dr. Reckeweg R40 Diabetes Drops (22ml @ INR 200)
- SBL Dibonil (30ml @ INR 95)
- SBL Homeopathy Syzygium Jambolanum 1X
- Schwabe Alfalfa Tonic (500ml @ INR 340)
- Schwabe Syzygium Jambolanum 1x (20gm @ INR 145)
Many other medicines homeopathic medicines are also available. Homeopathic medicine should be taken after consulting a good homeopathic doctor to get maximum benefits.
Useful Suggestion For Diabetes In Homeopathy
- Homeopathic medicines should be taken after cleaning the mouth and preferably on an empty stomach.
- Please do not eat strong-smelling food items such as onion, garlic, etc. within half an hour before and after taking the medicine.
- In case white globules have turned yellow, or sediments appear in the liquid form of medicine, do not take.
- Do not take tobacco in any form.
- During homeopathic treatment, no other medicines should be taken, unless suggested by a qualified homeopathic doctor.
- Away from strong smelling substances like camphor, menthol, etc.
- In a cool, dry place away from direct exposure to sunlight.
- Away from the reach of children.