Table of Contents
- 1 General Information
- 2 Vernacular names / Synonyms
- 3 Scientific Classification
- 4 Constituents of Barleria prionitis
- 5 Ayurvedic Properties and Action
- 6 Ayurvedic Formulations
- 7 Important Medicinal Properties
- 8 Medicinal Uses of Barleria prionitis
- 9 The Dosage of Barleria prionitis
Vajradanti, Peelo Vajradanti, Bajradanti, Katsareya, Kantajati, Kanta sulio, Barleria or Yellow Hedge Barleria are few common names of spiny erect bush Barleria prionitis. It is a medicinal plant native to temperate-tropical Asia and Africa and most commonly used in Ayurveda for dental care, acute-chronic rheumatism and inflammatory condition of joints.
Its Sanskrit name is Vajradanti, which literally means one which makes Danta (teeth) as hard as Vajra (diamond). The leaves are boiled with Kattha and used for rinsing mouth. This stops bleeding from gums and makes teeth strong. Barleria is also useful in acute and chronic congestion of the liver, jaundice, urinary and paralytic affections and in cardiac, renal and hepatic dropsy.
Barleria prionitis is grown as an ornamental and medicinal plant in Asia. It is an erect, bushy, prickly undershrub reaching up to 0.6-1.5 m high and found throughout hotter parts of the country and also cultivated as a hedge plant.
It can be considered an annual or perennial plant. During the dry season its stems, leaves, and flowers die off but the roots remain alive. The vegetation regrows during the rainy season.
Stem: Erect, 1-8 mm thick, terete, hard, glabrous, nodes swollen, branching at nodes, young stem grey, slightly four angled, usually with 3-4 divaricate spines at axil of leaf; mature stem cylindrical with longitudinally arranged or scattered dot-like lenticels; externally greyish to light brown; a few mature stem slightly hollow.
Leaf: Oval-ellipsoid shaped; variable in size up to 10 cm long – 4 cm wide, simple, elliptic, acuminate, entire, acute, reticulate, unicostate, glabrous above, glabrous or pubescent beneath; petiole short.
Spines: Pale in color, 1-2 cm long; present at the base of leaves.
Flowers: Tubular yellow–orange 4 cm long flowers with protruding stalks (stamens). Sessile, often solitary in the lower axis. becoming spicate above; bracts foliaceous, 16 by 4.5 mm, oblong or lanceolate, acute, bristle-tipped, nearly glabrous; bracteoles 1.3 cm long, narrowly linear, subulate (almost spinous), bristle-tipped; calyx,
divided almost to the base, one of the outer sepals rather more than 1.3 cm long, the opposite sepal rather less than 1.3 cm long, 3.4 mm broad, both oblong-lanceolate, mucronate; the 2 inner sepals 1.5 mm wide and as long as the shorter of the outer ones, linear-lanceolate, mucronate; corona, 3.2-4.5 cm long, yellow, slightly pubescent outside, glabrous inside, somewhat 2 lipped; upper lip 2 cm long or more, deeply 4 lobed, the lobes oblong-obovate, round; lower lip oblong-obovate, round, entire; tube 1.9 – 2.2 cm long; stamens 2 fertile and 2 staminodes; filaments of the fertile stamens exerted beyond the corona tube, those of the staminode very short. Ovary superior of two fused carpels; style, simple, usually long with two stigmas.
Fruit / Seed: Oval-shaped up to 2 cm long seed capsule containing 2 large (8mm long-5mm wide) flat seeds with silky appressed hairs.
Root: Central taproot, with lateral roots. Surface rough due to numerous dot-like lenticels and root scars of fallen roots; external surface greyish-brown, bark thin with the smooth internal surface; wood cream colored; fracture, hard and laminated; odour and taste not characteristic.
- Part(s) used for medicinal purpose: Root, Leaf, Bark
- Plant type / Growth Habit: Undershrub
- Duration: Annual or Perennial
- Distribution: India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Africa, China, Yemen
- Habitat: Throughout hotter parts of the country and also cultivated as a hedge plant.
Vernacular names / Synonyms
- Scientific name: Barleria prionitis var.
- Sanskrit: Kurantaka, Koranda, Kerandaka, Sahachara, Sahacharah, Saireyaka, Ananta, Bana, Pitapushpaka, Pitasaireyaka, Pura, Udyanapaki, Vira
- Assamese: Shinti
- Bengali: Kantajati
- Gujrati: Kanta-Saerio, Kantasalio, Kanta Shelio
- Hindi: Sahachara
- Kannada: Sahachara, Mullu gorate, Mullu gorante, Haladi gorate
- Kutch: Vajra daul
- Malayalam: Kirimkurunji, Karim Kurunni, Chemmulli, Shemmulli, Manjakanakambaram
- Marathi: Koranta, Koranti, Piwala Koranta, Koreta
- Oriya: Dasakeranda
- Punjabi: Sahacar
- Siddha: Chemmulli
- Tamil: Sammulli, Shemmuli, Varamuli
- Telugu: Mulu Gorinta Chettu, Muligoranta
- Unani: Katsaraiya, Piyabaasa
- Urdu: Pila Bansa, Piya Bansa
- English: Barleria, porcupine-flower, Common yellow nail dye, Thorn nails dye, Yellow Hedge Barleria (Barleria acanthoides is known as Vajradanti, Spiny White barleria; Barleria cristata L. is known as Jhinti, Kurabaka, Sahachara, Sahacharah, Crested purple nail dye, Philippine violet)
- German: Stachelschweinblume
- Myanmar: Leik – Su – Shwe
- Philippines: Kukong Manok
- Spain: Espinosa Amarilla
- Sweden: Orange Kantax
All plants are scientifically classified into main 7 levels. These levels are the Kingdom, Division, Class, Order, Family, Genus, and Species. A genus comprises of many species and the botanical name consists of Genus (uppercase) followed by Species (lowercase). Genus consists of many species which are closely related and have lots of similarities. Species is the lowest level and represents the group of the same plants.
The botanical name of Vajradanti is Barleria prionitis. It belongs to plant family Acanthaceae. Below is given a taxonomical classification of the plant.
- Kingdom: Plantae (comprising all living or extinct plants)
- Subkingdom: Tracheobionta (have lignified tissues or xylem for conducting water and minerals)
- Superdivision: Spermatophyta (produce seeds)
- Division: Magnoliophyta (flowering plants)
- Class: Magnoliopsida (flowering plant producing an embryo with paired cotyledons)
- Subclass: Asteridae
- Order: Lamiales
- Family: Acanthaceae (Acanthus family)
- Genus: Barleria L. (Philippine violet)
- Species: Barleria prionitis L. (Porcupine flower, Barleria)
- Barleria hystrix Linn.
- Barleria pubifiora Benth.
- Prionitis hystrix.
- Prionitis pubiflora.
Constituents of Barleria prionitis
β-Sitosterol, Potassium, Barlerin, Scutellareing-g-rhamnosyl glucoside, Irioids, Barterin, and Acetyl barlerin.
It does not contain any alkaloidal principle but a large amount of neutral and acid resins.
Ayurvedic Properties and Action
Sahchara is sweet, sour and bitter in taste, hot in potency and pungent after digestion (Katu Vipak). It balances Kapha and destroys the poison. It is especially useful in dental problems and gout.
Ayurvedic Name: Saireya (Charaka and Sushruta), Saireyaka (Sushruta), Kuranta, Kurantaka (Bhavaprakasha), Katsaraiya, Sahchara
- Rasa (taste on the tongue): Madhura (Sweet), Tikta (Bitter), Amla (Sour)
- Guna (Pharmacological Action): Snigdha (Unctuous)
- Virya (Action): Ushna (Heating)
- Vipaka (transformed state after digestion): Katu (Pungent)
It is an Ushna Virya herb. Ushna Virya or hot potency herb subdues Vata (Wind) and Kapha (Mucus) and increases Pitta (Bile).
It is a Katu Vipak herb. Vipak refers to post-digestive (effect after digestion/cooking of Rasa) effect of tastes after its mixing with digestive juices. It is the long-term effect of the herb. Katu Vipak herbs increase dryness in the body.
- Kasahar: Gives relief in cough.
- Keshya: Herb which makes hair stable and promotes growth e.g. Bringraja or Yashtimadhu.
- Mutral: Promotes urination.
- Vatahar: Pacifies Vata.
- Vishahara: Destroyer of poison
- Danta Roga (Gum and teeth problems)
- Kandu (Itching)
- Kushta (Chronic skin diseases)
- Mutra Roga (obstinate urinary disorders)
- Palita (Hair greying)
- Vatarakta (Gout)
- Ashtavarga Kvatha Churna
- Nilikadya Taila
- Prabhanjana Vimardanam Thailam
- Rasnairarnadi Churna
- Sahacharadi Taila
Important Medicinal Properties
Barleria prionitis is rich in medicinal properties. The understanding of these properties will help us to better utilize this herb. These also indicate the conditions in which we should avoid it.
Below is given medicinal properties along with the meaning.
- Anticatarrhal: Remove excess mucus from the body.
- Antidontalgic: Gives relief in toothache.
- Anti-inflammatory: Reducing inflammation by acting on body mechanisms.
- Antirheumatic: Alleviating or preventing rheumatism.
- Antiseptic: Capable of preventing infection by inhibiting the growth of infectious agents.
- Appetizer: Improves appetite.
- Astringents: Constrict tissues; styptic.
- Cholagogue: Promotes the discharge of bile from the system, purging it downward.
- Diaphoretic: Promote sweating.
- Diuretic: Promoting excretion of urine/agent that increases the amount of urine excreted.
- Emollient: Soothing and softening effect on the skin or an irritated internal surface.
- Expectorant: Promotes the secretion of sputum by the air passages, used to treat coughs.
- Thermogenic: Heating
Medicinal Uses of Barleria prionitis
Pila Vajradanti is used in Ayurveda for variety of ailments such as gout, rheumatism, Vata Roga, dental problems, gingivitis, stomatitis, pyorrhea, burns, ascites, oedema, wounds, nocturnal ejaculation, cracking of heels, urinary problems, ulcers, chronic skin diseases, cough, fever, migraine, and neurological disorders. It is rich in potassium and hence the water extract of the plant significantly increases the urination and sodium elimination. This action helps in urinary problems, stones, oedema, etc.
Leaf juice + sugar is given.
2- Anasarca (extreme generalized edema)
Fresh juice of the bark is given.
3- Arthritis, reducing fat in the body, Obesity
The bark powder is taken in a dose of a half a teaspoon twice a day.
4- Bleeding Gums
The juice of the leaves is applied to bleeding gums.
5- Body pain
Leaf paste is applied.
A paste of the root is applied.
7- Cough, catarrhal affections, fever with phlegm
Leaf juice 2 tablespoons + honey is given twice a day.
8- Cracked feet
The leaf juice or leaf paste is applied.
9- Eczema, itching
The paste of leaves is applied topically.
10- Greying of hair
Medicated oil prepared by boiling plant part is oil is used for scalp massaging.
11- Gout, rheumatism, swellings, inflammatory condition of joints
A plant decoction is prepared and taken internally in a dose of 50-100 ml.
12- Increase spermatogenesis
Dried powder of the plant are taken in a dose of 6 gm with honey.
13- Lymph node swellings
Root paste + rice washed water is applied.
14- Mouth ulcers
The shoot tips are chewed.
A decoction of the root is used as a mouthwash.
15- Oral Care
- The leaves are boiled in water and used for rinsing mouth.
- The twigs are chewed.
- A decoction of the root is used as a mouthwash.
Leaf juice is dropped in ears.
17- Rat-bite poisoning
The root decoction is given.
18- Rheumatic fever
Powder of shade-dried plant with cow milk is taken orally.
19- Ringworm, fungal infection
Root powder + lemon juice applied topically.
20- Skin allergy and chilblains
The leaf paste is externally applied on the skin.
21- Strengthening the gums, tooth-ache due to caries
A toothpaste made of the astringent leaves and common salt is used.
22- Stomach disorders, urinary affections
Leaf juice is given.
23- Toothache, Gum problems
The root is chewed as a toothbrush.
24- Toothache due to cavity
The leaf is bruised or juice extracted is in kept in the tooth cavity with or without Akarkara root.
25- Watery swelling and pain all over the body
Root and leaf (20 gm each) are made into decoction in water. A decoction is taken with cardamom powder twice a day for three days.
The Dosage of Barleria prionitis
The leaf juice is given internally in a dose of 5-20ml.
A decoction prepared from the plant are given in a dose of 50-100ml.
Contraindications, Interactions, Side-effects, and Warnings Barleria prionitis
- The leaves and flowering tops are diuretics, rich in potassium salts.
- It is heating and drying in nature.
- It increases urination.