Ipomoea turpethum / Operculina turpethum is an ornamental, and medicinal plant. It is commonly known as Indian Jalap, Trivrit, Turpeth, and Nishoth. It has properties, biomedical action, and chemical constituent similar to True Jalap which is a cathartic drug.
Trivrit / Turpeth is used in Ayurveda, Siddha, and Unani system of medicine for therapeutic purpose. The roots are thermogenic, purgative, carminative, anthelmintic, expectorant, antipyretic, hepatic, stimulant, and are used in the treatment of rheumatic, and paralytic affections, myalgia (muscular pain), arthralgia (joint pain), pectoralgia (thorax pain), fevers, oedema, jaundice, hepato-splenomegaly, hepatitis, intoxication, abdominal tumors, ulcers, wounds, worm infestation obesity, pruritus, other skin disorders, and constipation.
In Ayurveda, the roots of the plant are known as Trivrit, Tribhandi, Rechani, Nishotra, Kumbha, Kala, Shyama, and Triputa. The fleshy roots of the plant are collected, chopped, and dried in the sun for a day, and then shade dried. The roots are ground, and used medicinally. In Unani, the plant are known as Turbud, Nishoth, and in Siddha as Karunchivadai.
Indian Jalap is a stout perennial twining climber with a long twisting pubescent stems. It exudes a milky juice on cutting.
Leaves simple, alternate without stipules, 7-11 cm long, 6.5-10 cm broad, broadly ovate or oblong-cordate, subacute, slightly repand, shallowly cordate at base, margin entire or slightly, and undulately lobed, more or less pubescent on both sides, especially when young, minutely reticulate. Petioles 2-8 cm long, slightly pubescent.
The flowers are regular, bisexual rather large, white, campanulate, 4 cm long, and as much in diameter, white in simple cymes, 2-5 flowers together, pedicels stout, thickened upwards, pubescent, peduncle 6-8.5 cm lung; bracts large, 2.7 cm long, 1.8 cm broad, oblong-lanceolate, pubescent, apiculate, soon falling off; sepals 5, unequal, imbricate, the two outer 2.5 cm long, and as broad, ovate, membranous, mucronate, hairy on both sides, sprinkled over with black dots, becoming much enlarged in the fruit, inner sepals 1.7-2 cmlong, 1 .4-1.7 cm broad, hairy; petals 5, fused into a more or less rotate corolla, 4 cm in diameter, segments obscure, convolute, and contorted in bud; stamens 5, epipetaious, filaments dilated at base, and hairy; ovary superior, 2 mm long, 2-locular with 2 ovules in each chamber, style simple, 1 .6 cm long, stigma globose: fruit capsule over I .2 cm long, completely enclosed in enlarged, brittle, membranous, fleshy sepals, shortly stalked, depressed, strongly 4-lobed, slightly hairy.
Seeds are large, and glabrous.
The roots are usually dull grey, long, slender, fleshy, cylindrical, elongated, and bear thin rootlets. They are 1.5-15 cm long, 1-5 cm in diameter. The thicker pieces, sometimes split, and show central wood portion. The roots taste slightly acrid, and nauseating.
The botanical name of is Operculina turpethum. It belongs to plant family Convolvulaceae.
Convolvulaceae, commonly referred as morning glory or bindweed family consists of 50-60 Genus, and about 1600-1700 of the plant species distributed primarily in tropical areas of world. About one-third of the species are included in two major genera, Ipomea, and Convolvulus.
Many of the plants are valuable ornamentals, medicinal, and food crops. Some of the other medicinal plants belonging to this family are Argyreia nervosa (Elephant Creeper), Convolvulus pluricaulis Choisy (Sankhapuspi), Ipomoea digitata Linn. syn. Ipomoea paniculata (Giant potato), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), Ipomoea aquatica Forsk (Rabbit leaf), etc./em>.
The name of the plant family is derived from Latin word Convolvere meaning To Wind. The plants are annual or perennial climbers. The leaves of the plants belonging to the family are alternate, and simple or compound, heart-shaped, and the flower petals are united in the characteristic funnel-shaped / trumpet-shaped corolla. The stems often contain latex. Roots are usually fibrous but sometimes form rootstalks or tubers.
Below is given taxonomical classification of the plant.
- Kingdom: Plantae – Plants
- Subkingdom: Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
- Superdivision: Spermatophyta – Seed plants
- Division: Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
- Class: Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
- Subclass: Asteridae
- Order: Solanales
- Family: Convolvulaceae – Morning-glory family
- Genus: Operculina Silva Manso – lidpod P
- Species: Operculina turpethum (L.) Silva Manso – St. Thomas lidpod P
- Variety: Operculina turpethum (L.) Silva Manso var. turpethum – St. Thomas lidpod
Ipomoea turpethum R. Br.
Merremia turpethum (L.) Shah & Bhat
Part(s) used for medicinal purpose: Roots
Plant type: Perennial twining climber
Distribution: India, China, Sri Lanka, Africa, Australia, throughout the tropics.
Habitat: Throughout India up to 1000 m in damp shady places.
Chief Action: Purgative, laxative
Flowers: During May, and November
Safety Profile in Pregnancy: UNSAFE, it is should not be used in pregnancy. It is hot in potency, laxative, and purgative. It can cause Abortion due to abortifacient activity.
Vernacular names / Synonyms
- Scientific name: Operculina turpethum (Linn.) Silva Manso
- Sanskrit: Ardhachandra, Aruna, Kalameshi, Kalaparni, Kali, Kalingika, Kumbhadhatri, Laghurochani, Malavika, Masuravidala, Masuri, Nandi, Paripakini, Rechani, Rochani, Saha, Sara, Sarana, Sarasa, Sarata, Sarvanubhuti, Shyama, Susheni, Suvaha, Tribhandi, Triputa, Trivela, Trivrit, Trivrittika, Vidala
- Hindi: Nishothra, Nisotar, Nisoth, Nukpatar, Pitohri, Trivrut, Tarbal, Tarbud, Trabal
- Bengali: Teudi, Tvuri, Dhdhakalami
- Gujarati: Kala Nasottara
- Kannada: Vili Tigade
- Malayalam: Trikolpokanna
- Marathi: Nisottar
- Oriya: Dudholomo
- Punjabi: Nisoth
- Tamil: Karum Sivadai, Adimbu, Kumbam, Kumbanjan, Kunagandi, Paganrai, Samaran, Saralam, Sivadai
- Telugu: Tella, Tegada
- Urdu: Turbud, Nishoth
- English: Indian Jalap, Turpeth, Terpeth Root, False Jalap
Constituents of Operculina turpethum
The roots of the plant contain the glycosidic resin (about 10%), turpethin andh turpethein. Turpethein is made up of 1-turpethein containing jalapic, ipomoic, and tampicolic acids, and f-turpenthein. It gives laxative action to the drug.
The active principle glycosidic resin is a mostly concentrated in the root bark.
- Volatile oil
Important Medicinal Properties
Operculina turpethum is rich in medicinal properties. The understanding of these properties will help us to better utilize this herb. These also indicate the conditions in which we should avoid it. For example, it has purgative properties, and therefore should not be used in loose motions.
Below is given medicinal properties along with the meaning.
- Antisecretory: Reduces gastric acid secretion, acidity.
- Anti-inflammatory: Reducing inflammation by acting on body mechanisms.
- Antimicrobial: Active against microbes.
- Anticancer: used against or tending to arrest or prevent cancer
- Abortifacient: Induces abortion.
- Hepatoprotective: Prevent damage to the live
- Laxative: Stimulate or facilitate the evacuation of the bowels
- Purgative: Strongly laxative in effect.
Varieties of Trivrit in Ayurveda
Trivrit consists of dried root bark of Operculina turpethum. There are two varieties of Trivrit namely, Aruna or Shweta (whitish or reddish colored root), and Shyama (blackish root).
1. Aruna or Shweta Trivrit
2. Shyama or Kala Trivrit
The botanical name of Shweta Trivrit is Operculina turpethum (L.) Silva Manso (syn. Ipomoea turpethum), while that of Shyama is Ipomoea petaloides chois.
Shyama Nishoth is also known As Kala, Kala Mesi, Kala Parni, Ardha Chandrika, Susena, Malavika, Masura, and Vidala.
The white variety is used as a mild laxative, and black variety as violent purgative.
Ayurvedic Properties, and Action
Trivrit is purgative in action. It is astringent, bitter, sweet, sharp, and pungent in taste (Rasa), pungent after digestion (Vipaka), and is hotin effect (Virya).
- Rasa (taste on the tongue): Kashaya (Astringent), Madhura (Sweet), Katu (Pungent), Tikta (Bitter)
- Guna (Pharmacological Action): Laghu (Light), Tikshna (Penetrating), Ruksha (Dry)
- Virya: Ushna (Heating)
- Vipaka (transformed state after digestion): Katu (Pungent)
- Dosha: Black variety alleviates Kapha, and Pitta
- Dhatu: Blood, and Plasma
- Srota (Channels): Circulatory, and excretory
Trivrt is used in Ayurveda for the treatment of constipation, digestive ailments, fever, anemia, intestinal parasites, etc. It is also used as supporting herb for diseases of the nervous system.
- Kaphahara: Pacifies Kapha Dosha
- Pittahara: Pacifies Pitta Dosha
- Vatala: Aggravates Vata
- Virechak: Virechaka or purgatives causes bowel
- Jvarahara: Destroys fever
- Sukhavirechan: Safely eliminates the body wastes
- Bhedaniya: Purgative, and accumulation-breaking
Important Ayurvedic Formulations
- Avipattikar Churna
- Dhatupaushtik Churna
- Chandraprabha Vati
- Danti haritaki lehyam
- Divya Udaramrit Vati
- Divya Medohar Vati
- Kayam Churna
Medicinal Uses of Indian Jalap
Turpeth is known as Indian Jalap, and has properties similar to True Jalap. True Jalap is the resin obtained from the roots of a Mexican plant Ipomoea purga (Ipomoea jalapa/Exogonium purga), belonging to Convolvulaceae family, and having drastic purgative, and hydragogue (causes copious watery discharges from the bowels) properties. Turpeth is regarded as an effective substitute for true Jalap.
The powdered root is given as a purgative. The use of root powder gives relief in habitual constipation, colic, and piles. For piles it is given along with Triphala.
It purges pitta, and Kapha from the bowel.
Turpeth helps in skin disorders as it expels inflammatory watery accumulations from blood, and fat. For skin diseases, it is combined with Manjishtha, Kutki, Punarnava, and Neem.
Along with Guggulu, ginger, turmeric, it is effective in high cholesterol, and obesity.
Along with ginger, it is particularly beneficial in rheumatic, and paralytic affections, anemia, jaundice, and inflammations.
It is given in a dose of 3 grams with Mishri for jaundice.
The fresh juice of leaves is dropped into the eyes for inducing lachrymation in ophthalmia (severe inflammation of the eye or of the conjunctiva or deeper structures of the eye).
The root paste is applied topically to treat vitiligo, other skin disorders, alopecia, cervical lymphadenitis, hemorrhoids, fistulas, and ulcers.
The Dosage of Operculina turpethum
- The recommended dosage of root powder is 1-3 grams.
- For therapeutic purgation a maximum 10-12 gm paste of root bark of Trivrit with fermented rice water or milk, is administered in the morning on empty stomach. This dose produces 10 to 30 loose motions.
- Contraindications, Interactions, Side-effects, and Warnings Operculina turpethum
- It aggravates Vata.
- It should not be used (Contraindicated) in pregnancy, in children below 12 years of age, in elderly, in physically or mentally weaker persons, and in persons suffering from diarrhea, bleeding per rectum, rectal prolapse, or fecal incontinence.
- Large doses may lead to serious complications such as loose motions, bleeding per rectum, vomiting, abdominal pain, chest pain, dehydration, hypotension, vertigo, confusion, shock, and unconsciousness.
- It is always combined with antispasmodic herbs to prevent griping.