Indian heliotrope is a medicinal plant found as weed in tropical and subtropical regions of world. It is used for the treatment of a variety of diseases in Asia and Africa. In Sanskrit, it is known as Vrischikali as its aerial parts look like scorpion tail. Whole plant is used to treat skin diseases, rheumatism, insect stings, scorpion bites, etc. Its external use is safe but oral use should be done cautiously.
COMMON NAME: Indian heliotrope, Hastishundi ENGLISH: Scorpion Tail SIDDHA/TAMIL: Thaelkodukku SANSKRIT: Hastishundi, Shrihastini, Vrischikali HINDI: Hastisura
ANDHRA PRADESH: Nagadanthi TAMIL NADU (TAMIL): Thelkodukku MALAYALAM: Thekkadda, Vena pacha ORIYA: Hatisur TRADE NAME: Indian Turnsole
The botanical name of Indian heliotrope/Vrischikali is Heliotropium indicum and it belongs to the family Boraginaceae. The genus Heliotropium was derived from Helios (Sun) and trope (turn), as the flowers of the plant turn towards the Sun.
Its taxonomical classification is as given below:-
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Magnoliophyta
- Class: Magnoliopsida
- Order: Lamiales
- Family: Boraginaceae
- Genus Heliotropium
- Botanical name: Heliotropium indicum
- Synonym: Tiaridium indicum
Terrestrial, annual, erect herb, up to 75 cm tall;Taproot white or brown;Stems erect, grooved, hollow, hairy, Stipules absent;Leaves simple, not lobed or divided, alternate, spiral, or sometimes basal ones opposite, stalked, ovate, more than 2 cm long/wide, hairy, scabrous, margin entire, apex acute, base obtuse or rounded, pinnately veined;Flowers bisexual, grouped together in a many-flowered, terminal, elongated cyme, blue with an orange throat, petals 5, fused;Fruit nut-like.
Propagation: by seeds and stem cutting
Origin and geographic distribution
The plant has a pantropical distribution, and it is probably native of tropical America. It is widespread and common weed in waste places and settled areas, found throughout India and Africa.
Waste places, ditch borders, dried-up pools and ditches, on spread mud, along roads, and similar place with less man activity.
Medicinal use of Indian heliotrope/Scorpion Tail
Indian Heliotrope has therapeutic properties due to the presence of chemical components viz. Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids, Tannins and Saponins. Alkaloid component (indicine principal base, echinatine, supinine, heleurine, heliotrine, lasiocarpine and lasiocarpine N-oxide) is responsible for anti-inflammatory, wound healing, antiseptic, antimicrobial, febrifuge, stimulation of gall bladder functions and menstruation stimulating properties. The most important local application of the plant are for the skin lesions, wounds, abscesses, gastric and varicose ulcerations, rashes and warts.
The infusion of the flowers taken in small doses regulates menstruation, where large doses are abortive.
Leaves decoction is used as a vermifuge. Leaves juice is antiseptic, anti-inflammatory and applied topically wounds, sores, boils, gum-boils and pimples on the face, warts, tumors, yaws, skin allergy, scabies, eczema, etc. It is also used locally in inflammation of eyes. To prepare eyewash, 3 leaves are boiled in 1 cup water for 10 min and strained.
The leaves poultice is applied on rheumatic pain, insect stings and wounds. For scorpian sting and snakebites the paste of leaf is applied topically.
This plant has diuretic properties. Diuretics are also known as water pills as they increase the urinary output and electrolyte excretion. They are useful in various diseases such as high blood pressure, fluid retention, oedema, acute and chronic renal failure, sciatica, kidney stones, lymphatic swelling, glaucoma, the liver disorders and many more diseases. The infusion of leaves have strong diuretic action.
Contraindications, Caution/Warning, and Side Effects
The leaves of the plant have emmenagogue action. The oral administration stimulates menstruation and causes abortion in pregnancy.
The plant can be toxic if drunk regularly or in large doses (carcinogenic and/or the liver toxicity).