Table of Contents
Ancient Ayurvedic texts describes different types of milk depending on the species of animal e.g. milk of cow, buffalo, goat, sheep, camel, elephant, donkey, horse and human. Each one has different properties and used according to condition. Goat milk is ranked third in terms of global milk production from different species. It contains higher amount of calcium, magnesium, phosphors, selenium than cow and human milk. Milk of goat is considered easily digestible. It is given to infants as a substitute of the mother’s milk. Goat milk contains protein, lipid, carbohydrate, vitamin, minerals, fatty acids and bioactive compounds. It has the ability to prevent and treat many diseases. Goat milk is also given in the treatment of dengue fever.
Goat Milk (Bakri ka Dudh) in Dengue Fever
Dengue fever is a viral disease transmitted by bite of Aedes mosquitoes to humans. Dengue is found in South-east Asia, South or Central America, Mexico, Caribbean and many other countries of tropical and subtropical areas. In Allopathy, there is no treatment of dengue. Paracetamol is prescribed for reducing fever and symptomatic treatment is given.
In Ayurveda, for dengue fever giloy, papaya leaves, aloe vera juice and goat’s milk is prescribed.
Goat’s milk is beneficial in dengue
It is easily digestible.
It hydrates the body and maintains body fluid balance.
The main complications of dengue fever is deficiency of Selenium (Se) and decrease in platelets.
Selenium is the most essential micronutrient. It is part of about 25 proteins. Se has an anticlotting effect. Selenium controls the human immune system by upgrading it when necessary and degrading it when it is overactive.
Se prevents the replication of virus. T cell and interleukin both are the important component of immune system and Se help by increasing the function of T cell or by modulating the production of interleukin.
Selenium (Se) is the main component of goat milk. On comparison of goat and cow milk it was observed that goat milk have nearly 35% more Se than pasteurized cow milk (19.98 mg/l vs 14.85 mg/l).
Goat milk increases the iron bioavailability. This helps in recovery from hematological parameter after ferropenic nutritional anemia by increasing the Fe deposition in the target organs.
Goat milk help in the digestive and metabolic utilization of several minerals such as Fe, calcium, phosphorous and magnesium.
For treating dengue fever goat milk is very helpful because it directly modulate the immune system, gives energy, hydrates body and supplies essential nutrients.
In dengue fever, 250 ml of cool, fresh goat milk is given two times a day.
Health Benefits of Goat’s milk (Bakri ka doodh)
It is easily digestible. In goat milk the lipid globules are significantly smaller than in cow milk. The large number of fat globules with small diameter makes the goat milk more digestible.
It contains higher amount of calcium, magnesium and phosphors than cow and human milk.
It has a higher proportions of polyunsaturated fat acid (PUFA). PUFA helps to lower LDL (bad) cholesterol.
Due to the presence of bioactive lipids goat milk improves the body immunity and has anti-allergic properties. They have ability to reduce the allergy related immunoglobulin IgE.
It is rich in medium chain triglycerides and has better nutrient absorption and energy production.
The milk of goat is whiter due to the presence of higher vitamin A content. Vitamin A affects immunity and antibody responses.
Goat milk has high content of Potassium, Calcium, chloride, Phosphorus, Selenium, Zinc and Copper than cow milk.
Goat’s milk improves calcium and phosphorous metabolism, zinc level and bioavailability of iron.
Goat’s milk contains oligosaccharides which reduce intestinal inflammation and aid recovery from colitis.
It can be used as a substitute for the patients who are allergic to cow milk.
Composition of Goats’ Milk
The composition of goat’s milk is dependent on many factors such as feed, season, breed, stages of lactation, nutritional and environmental factors. Goat milk contain more Selenium and vitamin A. It is naturally homogenized and easier to digest. It has lesser amount of proteins molecules compared to cow’s milk. Its fat molecules are thinner, and half of the size of those in cow milk.
Composition of Milk from various species (per 100 ml)
|Nutrients||Human milk||Cow’s milk||Goat’s milk||Buffalo’s milk|
|Vitamin A (mcg)||42||52||54||48|
|Vitamin C (mg)||3||2||1||1|
Goat milk has the following medicinal properties
Immunomodulatory: modifies the immune response or the functioning of the immune system (as by the stimulation of antibody formation or the inhibition of white blood cell activity).
Anti-inflammatory: reduces inflammation.
Anti-carcinogenic: against cancer.
Antioxidant: protects from free radical damage.
Anti-allergic: against allergy.
Anti-bacterial, antimicrobial and Antiviral activity.
Milk obtained from goat is helpful in the prevention of Cardiovascular Disease, Gastrointestinal Diseases and Allergy. It shows beneficial effects in Digestive Disorders, Asthma, Ulcers, Allergies, Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), Malabsorption Disorders, Crohn´S Disease and Ulcerative Colitis. As a home remedy to treat weakness in children, goat milk is given.
Ensminger, M.E. and R.O. Parker, 1986. Sheep and Goat Science.
Park, Y.W., 2007. Hypoallergenic and therapeutic significance of goat milk. Small Ruminant Research.
Haenlein GFW (2004). Goat milk in human nutrition. Small Ruminant Research.
Alférez MJM, López-Aliaga I, Nestares T, Díaz-Castro J, Barrionuevo M, Ros PB and Campos MS (2006) Dietary goat milk improves iron bioavailability in rats with induced ferropenic anemia in comparison with cow milk. International Dairy Journal.
Díaz-Castro J, Alférez MJM, López-Aliaga I, Nestares T and Campos MS (2009). Effect of calcium-supplemented goat or cow milk on zinc status in rats with nutritional ferropenic anemia. International Dairy Journal.
Cerbulis, J., O.W. Parks and H.M. Farrellr, 1982 Composition and Distribution of Lipids of Goats´Milk. Journal of Dairy Science.
Park, Y., 2009. Bioactive components in goat milk.
Mc Cullough, F., 2003. Nutritional evaluation of goat’s milk. Health Food Journal.
Aliaga IL, Castro JD, Alferez MM, Barrionuevo M, Campos MS. A review of the nutritional and health aspects of goat milk in cases of intestinal resection.
Maria JMA, Inmaculoda LA, Teresa N, Javier DC, Mercedes B, Patricia BR and Margarita SC. Dietary goat milk improves iron bioavailability in rats with induced ferropenic anemia in comparison with cow milk.
Maree HP. Goat milk and its use as a hypo-allergenic infant food. Dairy Goat Journal.
Agnihotri MK and Prasada VSS. Biochemistry and processing of goat milk and milk products.
Jenness R. Composition and Characteristics of Goat Milk. J Dairy Sci.