Table of Contents
- 1 Scientific Classification
- 2 Vernacular names
- 3 Ayurvedic Properties and Action on body
- 4 Medicinal uses
- 4.1 Mouth ulcers and other oral infections
- 4.2 Menorrhagia
- 4.3 Swelling
- 4.4 Boils
- 4.5 Pimples and freckles
- 4.6 Burn marks on skin
- 4.7 Rakta Pitta or bleeding disorder, Nose Bleeding
- 4.8 Urticaria (Hives) or sheet-pitta
- 4.9 Bhasmak rog
- 4.10 Dysentery
- 4.11 Stomach ache
- 4.12 Fistula, Piles Haemorrhoids
- 4.13 Leucorrhoea, Weakness, Spermatorrhea
- 4.14 Burning sensation in hands and feet due to excess pitta/Heat
- 4.15 Excessive thirst
- 4.16 Dhatu kshaya
- 4.17 Cuts, muscle pain
- 4.18 Cracked heels
Gular or Cluster fig tree is a sacred, large tree distributed throughout India. It is one of the tree of four trees of the Nalpamara or Nalpamaram in Ayurveda (other three are Ficus microcarpa/Plaksah, Ficus relegiosa/Peepal, Ficus benghalensis/Bargad). Goolar tree leaves, fruits, root and bark are used to treat various diseases.
The latex is applied topically on cuts, boils, muscular pain, pimples, scabies, haemorrhoids etc. The fruits are edible and full of nutrition. Fruits are cooling, cardiac tonic and useful in urinary diseases, bile disorders, menstrual disorders. The leaves fresh juice or decoction is used in treatment of many diseases. The description of Udumbara or Gular tree is even given in Ved. Rig Veda mentions it as a tree that cures piles, internal wounds, removes impurities from blood, worms from alimentary canal. Atharvaveda describes its usefulness in skin diseases like leprosy, sinus, oedema, impurities of blood and in piles. Bhavaprakasha mentions it is useful in treatment of pimples and wounds.
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Division: Magnoliophyta
- Class: Magnoliopsida
- Order: Rosales
- Family: Moraceae
- Genus: Ficus
- Species: F. racemosa
- Synonyms: Ficus glomerata Roxb
- Sanskrit: Apushpaphalasambandha, Audumbaram, Brahmavriksha, Haritaksha, Hemadugdha, Shetavalkala, Udumbara, Yajnaphala
- Assamese: Jambhaij, Jamij, Dimoree
- Bengali: Dumur, Jajna-dumur, Jaya dumur
- English names: Cluster fig, Country fig, Gular fig
- Gujarati: Gudar, Umar, Umbara
- Hindi: Gullar, Gular, Umar
- Kannada: Athimaro
- Malayalam: Atti
- Marathi: Umbar
- Oriya: Dumburi, Dumuri
- Punjabi: Gullar, Umbra, Rumbn
- Tamil: Atti, Athi
- Telugu: Atti, Medi
- Urdu: Goolar, Gular
- Unani: Anjir-e-Aadam, Anjir-e-
- Ahmak, Gular
- Siddha: Atthi
- Trade name: Common fig
- Flowering: Spring;Fruiting: Rainy season.
Ecology and cultivation: Tropical plant;grows on the banks of streams, sides of rivers, on rocky slopes, up to 1500 m;wild.
Distribution: Throughout India;Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka.
The Tree:Spreading laticiferous tree, 9.0-12.2 m tall, bark reddish grey, smooth;leaves alternate, stipules ovate-Ianceolate, pubescent, 1.25-2.5 cm long, petioles 2.5-5.0 cm long, lamina simple membranous, ovate to obovate-oblong or lanceolate, 10-18 cm long, dark green, glabrous or softly pubescent above while lower surface pubescent or glabrous;fruits borne in clusters on the main trunk and leafless short branches, subglobose or pyriform, 2.5-5.0 cm in diameter, red when ripe.
Ayurvedic Properties and Action on body
- Rasa (Taste): Kashaya/Astringent
- Guna (Characteristics): Guru/Heavy, Ruksha/Dry
- Virya (Potency): Sheet/ Cool
- Vipaka (Post Digestive Effect): Katu/Pungent
Action: balances Kapha, Pitta;Reduces obesity, detoxifies;
Dose of bark: 3-6 g in powder form;20-30 g for decoction.
- Rasa (Taste): Kashaya/Astringent, Madhura/Sweet
- Guna (Characteristics): Guru/Heavy, Ruksha/Dry
- Virya (Potency): Sheet/ Cool
- Vipaka (Post Digestive Effect): Madhura/Sweet
Action: Balances kapha and Pitta
Dose of dried fruits: 10-15 g in powder form.
Phytochemical are bioactive compounds that are found in plants. These active substance protects plant from various diseases and due to presence of such compound, human are using various herbs to cure and prevent many diseases. Different plants contains different phytochemicals.
This medicinal plant contains following phytochemicals:
Bark: The tree bark contains phytochemical constituents namely alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavonoids, glycosides, saponins, steroids, tannins, phenols, triterpenoid, fixed oils. The bark lowers the level of blood sugar (hypoglycaemic), kills worms and reduces swelling. It is also useful in lipid disorders and obesity.
Fruits: The fruits contain ?-Sitosterol, Lupeol Acetate and Carbohydrates. The ripe fruits are eaten fresh or preserved in honey in future use. Unripe fruits are cooked and eaten with food. The fruits are very nutritious and is preferred as morning food. The fruits also controls serum cholesterol levels. Fresh whole fruits, are source of dietary fibre with hypocholesterolemic activity.
Traditionally tender fruits are given to treat vitiated conditions of pitta, diarrhoea, dyspepsia and haemorrhages. The ripe fruits are sweet, cooling and are used in haemoptysis, thirst and vomiting.
Leaf:Leaves contain ?-amyrin, ?-sitosterol, gluanol-OAc, sterols, triterpenoids, alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids.
Leaves are astringent to bowels and used in treatment of dysentery, bilious infection and as a mouthwash in spongy gum. Tender leaf buds are applied on the skin in paste form to improve the complexion. The leaves decoction is good wash for wounds and ulcers.
Gular tree is astringent, anti-diabetic, anti-asthmatic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antiulcer, anti-pyretic and anti-diarrheal in action. Bark, leaves and unripe fruit gives relief in flatulence, astringent, promotes appetite, assist in digestion, and kills parasitic worms. Its latex is useful in cuts, insect bites, boils, bruises, swellings. Bark of gular tree is used to treat infections, swelling and inflammation.
Here are some medicinal uses of various parts of cluster fig. These are time-tested simple home remedies.
Mouth ulcers and other oral infections
Take bark (10 gm) of gular tree and cook in water (400 ml) for few minutes. Add alum (pinch) and filter. Use this water to rinse mouth frequently.
Menorrhagia is Profuse, excessive bleeding during menses. It can be due to hormonal imbalance or in cases of cysts in the ovaries or fibroids in the uterus.
Dried figs of Cluster fig tree should be taken with sugar and honey.
Take bark of gular tree, grind on stone with water to make paste. Apply at affected area.
For curing boils take gular bark paste and apply at affected area.
Pimples and freckles
Take inner side of gular bark and make paste of it. Apply on pimples, acne and freckles.
Burn marks on skin
Take gular fruits and make paste. Mix paste with honey and apply regularly on burn marks. Use regularly to get normal skin tone.
Also burning causes skin to tighten and stiffen. Apply paste of bark and leaves on such burnt areas.
Rakta Pitta or bleeding disorder, Nose Bleeding
Take tender leaves (10-15), grind to extract juice and add misri to this juice. Take regularly.
Urticaria (Hives) or sheet-pitta
Take tender leaves and extract juice. Drink 15 ml juice for few days.
Dry gular fruits and make powder. Take this powder (1 tbsp) three times a day for few days.
Drink 10- 15 ml juice of gular tender leaves.
Take dry fruits of gular, ajwain and sendha namak. Make powder and take two times a day with water.
Fistula, Piles Haemorrhoids
Take milk like secretion or latex of gular tree after plucking leaves and soak in cotton. Apply on affected area.
Leucorrhoea, Weakness, Spermatorrhea
Drink 1 cup juice of gular tender leaves in morning.
Burning sensation in hands and feet due to excess pitta/Heat
Drink tender leaves juice of gular.
Take few cluster fig leaves and extract 7-14 ml fresh juice. Drink this two times a day.
Or prepare decoction of leaves and drink 14-28 ml with sugar twice daily.
Drinking 7-14 ml fresh juice of leaves twice daily is useful.
Cuts, muscle pain
Traditionally the latex of roots is applied topically.
Extract the stem latex and apply externally on cracked heels.