Cissus Quadrangularis (Hadjod) Medicinal Usage

Hadjod or Cissus Quadrangularis ( Cissus quadrangular ) has potent fracture healing property. It has antimicrobial, antiulcer, antioxidant, anti-osteoporotic, gastro-protective, cholinergic activity.

Hadjod or Cissus Quadrangularis is a perennial climber of the grape family (Vitaceae). This plant is distributed throughout India particularly in tropical regions.

Hadjod is commonly known as Asthisrinkala, Mangaravalli, Pirandai, Hadajora, Harjor and Bone Setter. In Ayurveda and Siddha, its use is mentioned for quick healing in case of bone fracture and weight management. It is also indicated in intestinal parasites, Vata-Kapha roga, and joint pain. It is used as a specific for fractures of bones. For dislocation of joints and bone fractures, traditionally the stem is given internally with milk and its medicated oil was massaged externally. Extracts and powders of Cissus have been used for many years to promote bone and tissues healing, as an analgesic, to treat infections, as an anabolic, and to promote weight loss and weight management. Hadjod or Cissus Quadrangularis plant is non-toxic and does not produce toxicity to internal organs.

General Information of Cissus quadrangularis

Cissus quadrangularis is commonly known as Asthisamhari, Vajravalli, Asthishrinkhala, Asthisamhara, Kandavalli, Vajrangi, Asthisamyojaka, Hadjod, Hadjora, Hadsankari, Hadsarihari and Kandvel. It is a succulent plant of family Vitaceae commonly found throughout the hotter parts of It reaches up to a height of 11.5 m with sticky tendrils.  It has quadrangular sectioned branches with internodes 8 to 10 cm long and 1.2 to 1.5 cm width. Along each angle is a leathery edge.

Plant Description:

Stem is buff colored with greenish ting dichotomously branched, sub- angular, glabrous, fibrous and smooth. Climbing herb, tendrils simple, opposite to the leaves, leafless when old. The stem is quadra angular with clear nodes and internode.

  • Leaves: Simple or lobed, cordate, broadly ovate or reniform, serrate, dentate, sometimes 3-foliate and glabrous.
  • Flowers: Small, greenish white, bisexual, tetramerous, in umbellate cymes, opposite to the leaves. Calyx is cup shaped.
  • Fruit: Globose or obovoid fleshy berries, succulent, very acrid, dark purple to black, one seeded.
  • Seeds: Ellipsoid or pyriform.

The flowering – fruiting period is October-December. It is common climber in mixed forest area and scrub forests and can be cultivated in a garden.

  • Group: Dicot
  • Family: Vitaceae
  • Part(s) used for medicinal purpose: All parts, juice of stem and leaves, dried powder
  • Plant type / Growth Habit: Climbing shrub
  • Duration: Perennial
  • Habitat:  Native to India or Sri Lanka, but also found in Africa, Arabia, and South-East Asia. Grown in gardens.
  • Safety Profile: Very safe
  • How to Propagate: It propagate from the stem cutting. The mature stem cutting with 4-5 internodes are taken and pressed in the soil. The soil is kept moist for rooting of the cutting.

Vernacular names / Synonyms of Hadjod

  • Scientific name: Cissus Quadrangularis
  • Sanskrit: Asthisandhani, Asthisamhara, Asthisamhrit, Asthisamyojaka, Vajravalli
  • Assamese: Harjara
  • Bengali: Hadajora
  • Gujrati: Hadasankala
  • Hindi: Hadjod
  • Kannada: Mangaravalli, Vajravalli, Sanduballi
  • Malayalam: Changalam Parande
  • Marathi: Kandvel
  • Oriya: Hadbhanga
  • Punjabi: Haddjor
  • Tamil: Perandai
  • Telugu: Nalleru
  • Urdu: Hathjod
  • English: Adament creeper, Bone setter, Edible-stemmed vine
  • Unani: Hadjoda
  • Siddha: Piranda

Cissus Quadrangularis Scientific Classification

All plants are scientifically classified into main 7 levels. These levels are Kingdom, Division, Class, Order, Family, Genus and Species. A genus comprise of many species and botanical name consists of Genus (uppercase) followed by Species (lowercase). Genus consists of many species which are closely related and have lots of similarities. Species is the lowest level and represents the group of same plant.

The botanical name of Hadjod is Cissus Quadrangularis. It belongs to plant family Vitaceae. Below is given taxonomical classification of plant.

  • Kingdom: Plantae (comprising all living or extinct plants)
  • Subkingdom: Tracheobionta (have lignified tissues or xylem for conducting water and minerals)
  • Superdivision: Spermatophyta (produce seeds)
  • Division: Magnoliophyta (flowering plants)
  • Class: Magnoliopsida (flowering plant producing an embryo with paired cotyledons)
  • Subclass: Rosidae
  • Order: Rhamnales
  • Family: Vitaceae – Grape family
  • Genus: Cissus L. – treebine
  • Species: Cissus quadrangularis L. – veldt-grape

Cissus Quadrangularis Botanical Synonyms

Vitis quadrangularis Wall. ex Wight

Cissus Quadrangularis Constituents

The plant contains calcium oxalate, ß-carotene, ascorbic acid, ß-sitosterol and 3-ketosteroids, flavonoids such as quercetin, and kaempferol. The stem contains two unsymmetrical tetracyclic triterpenoids, onocer-7-ene-3a, 21ß-diol and onocer- 7-ene-3ß, 21 a –diol, two steroidal principles I and II, d-amyrin, d-amyrone.

The air-dried plant contains moisture 13.1%, protein 12.8%, fat and wax 1.0%, fibre 15.6%, carbohydrates 36.6%, mucilage and pectin s 1.2%, and ash 18.2 %. Phosphates of sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium are also present.

Cissus quadrangularis contains 2 tetracyclic triterpenoids and 2 steroidal principles.

Steroids supports better rate of fracture- healing by influencing early regeneration of all connective tissues involved in the healing and quicker mineralization of the callus.

Cissus Ayurvedic Properties and Action

Cissus Quadrangularis or Bone Setter is known as Asthisamharaka (saves the bones from their destruction) in Sanskrit. It is considered sweet and pungent in taste (Rasa), pungent after digestion (Vipaka), and is hot in effect (Virya).

  • Rasa (taste on tongue): Katu (Pungent), Madhura (Sweet)
  • Guna (Pharmacological Action): Laghu (Light), Ruksha (Dry), Sara (Unstable)
  • Virya (Action): Ushna (Heating)
  • Vipaka (transformed state after digestion): Katu (Pungent)
  • Dosha Effect: Vatahara, Kaphahara

It gives strength to bones and joints and supports healing of bone fracture. Fresh juice obtained from the plant is given in dose of 10-20 ml for this purpose.  All parts such as stems, leaves, roots possess medicinal properties. Asthi sarhhara is useful in asthi bhagna (fracture of bone). It promotes strength and alleviates Vayu.

Ayurvedic Actions / Karma of Cissus quadrangularis

  • Ama nashak: toxin digester
  • Asthisandhanakara: Heals fracture.
  • Chakshushya: Good for eyes.
  • Deepan: Increase appetite.
  • Kasahara: Removes cough
  • Krimighna: Destroys worms
  • Pitta vardhak: Increases pitta
  • Vatahara: Pacifies Vata Dosha
  • Vrishya: Increases sexual potency, the quantity of semen

Important Medicinal Properties / Biomedical Action

Cissus Quadrangularis is rich in medicinal properties. The understanding of these properties will help us to better utilize this herb. These also indicate the conditions in which we should avoid it.

Below is given medicinal properties along with the meaning.

  • Analgesic: Acting to relieve pain.
  • Anti-inflammatory: Reducing inflammation by acting on body mechanisms.
  • Antiosteoporotic: Countering osteoporosis, whole plant possesses antiosteoporotic activity.
  • Antioxidant: Exhibits strong antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity.
  • Anti-ulcer: Significant antiulcer activity by decreasing gastric secretions and by enhancing glycoprotein levels.
  • Bone healing: Due to rich content of calcium, phosphorous and phytoestrogenic steroids it is shown to influence early regeneration and quick mineralization of bone fracture healing process.
  • Central nervous system activity: The root extract possesses central nervous system depressant activity.
  • Central nervous system activity: The root extract possesses central nervous system depressant activity.

Hadjod Health Benefits

  • It strengthens the bones.
  • It hastens the fracture healing.
  • It reduces swelling.
  • It reduces fracture pain.
  • It is used both internally and externally. The paste is applied topically on fracture for better healing. The paste of herb on local
  • application to the fractured area in shows reduction in total healing time of fracture.
  • It helps in reducing pain, swelling, and fracture mobility and accelerate the healing of fracture jaw bones.
  • Stem is useful in the treatment of piles and its juice is used to treat bleeding of nose.
  • It supports accumulation and precipitation of calcium from blood for bone recovery.
  • The other medicinal uses of Hadjoda inclde treating digestive disorders, asthma, indigestion, skin diseases and irregular menstruation. It is also useful in obesity management and complications of metabolic disorders. Hadjod or Cissus quadrangular has potent fracture healing property. It has antimicrobial, antiulcer, antioxidant, anti-osteoporotic, gastro-protective, cholinergic activity.

Cissus quadrangular for Weight loss

Cissus quadrangular formulation helps in weight loss and metabolic syndrome, particularly for central obesity.

It controls and lowers triglyceride concentrations, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and fasting blood glucose. It enhances satiation by increasing serum serotonin levels.

The phytosterols and fiber have lipase inhibitor action. Lipase inhibitors are substances used to reduce the activity of lipases found in the intestine. Lipases are secreted by the pancreas when fat is present. The primary role of lipase inhibitors is to decrease the gastrointestinal absorption of fats.  It significantly reduces plasma total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol.

Obese and overweight persons with symptoms of metabolic syndrome should take Cissus formulation twice daily. This causes reduction in weight and improvement in the symptoms associated with metabolic syndrome.

For weight loss, 500 mg of supplement is taken twice a day immediately before meals (preferably breakfast and dinner).

Chief Indications of Cissus quadrangularis

  • Antihelminthic
  • Any type of bone fractures
  • Aphrodisiac
  • Chronic ulcer
  • Colic
  • Diabetes
  • Dyspepsia
  • Epilepsy
  • Fractures
  • Hemolysis
  • High cholesterol
  • Inflammation
  • Internal Bleeding
  • Joint pains
  • Leprosy
  • Low bone mineral density
  • Maxillofacial fracture
  • Menopause, low libido, and menstrual disorders
  • Metabolic syndrome
  • Obesity
  • Ophthalmic
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Osteoporosis
  • Otorrhea
  • Rickets in children
  • Tumors
  • Weak and fragile bones

Cissus Quadrangularis Medicinal Uses

The stem of Hadjod or Cissus quadrangularis is used for the treatment of gastritis, bone fractures, skin infections, constipations, eye diseases, piles, anemia, asthma, irregular menstruation, burns and wounds. The stem juice is useful in scurvy and in irregular menstruation. The stem paste boiled in lime water is given in asthma. The powder of dried shoot is useful in digestive problems.

Hadjod or Bone Setter has proven ability to join broken bones. Studies haves shown, the presence of vitamins and anabolic steroid, which may act on estrogenic receptors of the bone. The plant helps in early ossification and remodeling of bones. The oral intake of plant, helps in quick healing of fracture by stimulation of metabolism and increased uptake of the minerals calcium, Sulphur and strontium by the osteoblasts in fractured bone.

Ankle twist

Plant paste is applied.

Backache

Plant decoction is given.

Bone fracture

The three-cornered variety of the plant is preferred to the four-cornered variety.

In case of bone fracture, the macerated stem of the fresh plant is fried in oil and applied on the site of fracture before application of splint/cast.

The medicated ghee or Ghrita prepared with the juice of the plant is taken orally or the juice of the plant given with ghee.

Digestive disorders, upset stomach

  • Dried plant or young stem powder is given.
  • Paste of stem is taken orally for easy digestion.

Heavy bleeding during periods

Stem (skin removed) juice mixed with sandalwood, honey and ghee is given in empty stomach in the morning for 3- 6 days.

Pain and swelling

Stem paste is useful for muscular pains, burns, wounds, bites of poisonous insects and sores.

Osteoporosis

Stem cooked with rice is eaten osteoporosis.

Rat bite

Plant paste is applied.

Regulate Periods/ Menstruation

The mixture of 30 ml of the juice expressed from the slightly roasted twig, leaves, and stem and 15 gram Ghee and sugar is given in the morning.

Rheumatoid arthritis

Half feet long stem piece cooked with rice or its decoction is given for rheumatoid arthritis.

Improving semen quality and quantity

Small stem pieces ground with equal quantity of Ashwagandha root are consumed with sugar and honey.

How to use the plant for bone fracture and other uses

Hadjod can be used Internally and Externally. For a fractured bone it generally takes 21 days for healing.

External Use

  • Take 1-2 internode of the stem.
  • Wash in clean running water.
  • Cut in pieces. Put in mortar and pestle.
  • Grind and make pulp.
  • The pulp is applied at fractured bone with help of bandage. Put some cotton to stop pulp from slippng out of the bandage. The bandage should be placed in such a manner that the pulp does not slip and remain on the fracture for healing action.
  • Apply it twice or thrice a day.

Internal Use

  • Take 1-2 internode of the stem.
  • Wash in clean running water.
  • Cut in pieces. Put in mortar and pestle.
  • Grind and make pulp.
  • The pulp should be filtered through the cloth to get the juice.
  • Take about 10 ml of juice and mix in one cup water. Drink one or twice a day.

Cissus Quadrangularis Dosage

  • Cissus Quadrangularis should be taken before meal.
  • Decoction of dried stem: 10-30 ml twice a day.
  • Stem Juice: 10-20 ml twice a day.
  • Stem Powder/churna: 3-6 g twice a day
  • Supplements of Cissus are available. The capsules should be taken half an hour before meals.

Name of few Supplements

  • Laxadi Guggulu for osteoarthritis, fracture, pain, misalignment of bones etc.
  • Himalaya Hadjod Capsules 250 mg
  • D M Pharma Ostepact Cissus Quadrangularis Extract 500 mg
  • BSA Pharma Fevijoint Forte Tablets (Cissus Quadrangularis 750mg + Vitex Nirgundo 200mg + Boswellia Serr 200mg+ Ashwagandha Tablet 100mg)
  • Sarthi Life Sciences Sureheal Capsule (Cissus Quadrangularis 500 mg+ Ashwagandha Tablet 50mg + shilajeet 50 mg)
  • Bionova Cissquad (Cissus Quadrangularis Standardised to Ketosteroids 40% – 500mg)
  • Cissus Pro 1000 (Cissus Quadrangularis 2.5 % 3-Ketosteroids)

Adverse effects of supplement are minor and may include headache, gas, dry mouth, diarrhea, and insomnia.

Contraindications, Interactions, Side-effects and Warnings Cissus Quadrangularis

  • It is NON-TOXIC.
  • It is an edible plant and well tolerated.
  • Study about safety of taking Cissus quadrangular is in pregnancy or breast-feeding is not available. Hence, avoid its use while pregnant and breastfeeding.
  • It increases Pitta which can cause acid reflux, heartburn etc. in Pitta Prakriti person.
  • Few side effects of Cissus quadrangular include headaches, excessive gas, sleep problems etc. In some sensitive people, due to its heating and drying action, it may cause such as burning sensation, restlessness, insomnia, dryness, dry mouth, sweating etc.
  • It may lower blood sugar. Stop using this at least 2 weeks before a scheduled surgery as it lowers blood sugar level.
  • Person suffering from low blood sugar level should take it with caution.
  • Specific contraindications have not been identified.
  • High doses may cause central nervous system depression, sedation, muscle relaxing, skin rashes or allergy.
  • The paste is sharp pungent and can make scars in soft tissues on touch for long time. So, apply carefully.
  • Long term safety is unknown as no study has been done.

FAQs

What is Cissus or Harjor?

Cissus is Ayurvedic Herbal medicine obtained from the climbing shrub stem from grape family and used to promote fracture healing. It is also given in case of weak or porous bones, prone to fracture.

What is the main use of Cissus?

It is used for bone fracture, obesity, diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and high cholesterol.

How Cissus / Hadjod heals in Bone Fracture Healing?

Hadjod increases bone mineral density by stimulating bone metabolism and increasing the uptake of minerals calcium, phosphorus, sulfur, and strontium by osteoblasts.

Hadjod reduces pain, swelling, and fracture mobility and accelerate the healing of fracture.

There is shortening of about two weeks in the duration of bone healing due to presence of vitamins and steroid which have specific effect on bone fracture.

Anabolic steroidal principle present in plant has marked influence on the rate of fracture healing by influencing early regeneration of all connective tissues involved in the healing and quicker mineralization of callus.

All cells of mesenchymal origin, namely, the fibroblasts, chondroblasts and osteoblasts are stimulated to helps better and faster healing.

What is dose of Cissus capsules?

Cissus Capsules generally contain 250mg, 500 mg, 750 mg and 1000mg of the extract.  The suggested dosage of Cissus Extract is 500-2000 milligrams per day depending on the case. Sport person with serious ligament, bone, or tendon injuries can take up to 5000 milligrams per day.

Cissus should be taken empty stomach before meals 15-30 minutes before meals.

Is Cissus safe to take? 

Yes, it safe to take. It may cause few side effects such as headache, intestinal gas, dry mouth, diarrhea, and insomnia. The reason could be high dose. Start with low dose.

Is Cissus safe for children?

Yes, it is herbal and can be safely given to kids. The dosage is half or lower as compared to adult person.

Can Cissus be taken during pregnancy?

It is better to avoid during pregnancy as no data is available how it affects the fetus.

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