Abhrak Bhasma is useful in phthisis, diabetes, debility of old age. It cures chronic fever, bronchitis, asthma, piles, palpitation of the heart, blood pressure, nervous debility, spermatorrhoea, hard breathing, asthma, coryza, leucorrhoea, stricture urethra, burning urination and retention of urine.
Abhrak Bhasma is the calcination of the mineral, mica. It is an established Rasayana (Rejuvenative tonic, nourishes all Dhatu and builds Ojas, promotes longevity by preventing aging and by making the body young again) of Ayurveda.
Abhrak Bhasma contains iron as major element and magnesium, potassium, calcium, and aluminum in traces. It is a broad spectrum medicine effective in treatment of acidity, respiratory ailments, anemia, hepatitis, viral hepatitis, sex debility, azoospermia etc. Abhraka Bhasma It is a wonder drug due to its curative property in various ailments.
Shataputi and Sahasraputi Abhrak Bhasma
The production of Bhasma is an elaborate process involving Shodhan ( purification) and Marana ( process of converting metals and minerals into Bhasma) by putapaka ( transformation by fire).
Every metal/mineral subjected to Marana process needs some kind of puta for its paka (Putapaka). Puta पुट is the ancient heating device used for the Marana/ Incineration. It represents the quantum of heat required in process of Marana and depends on metal/mineral subjected to Incineration.
Before Marana, the metal/mineral is triturated with specified herbal extracts and then Putapaka is applied. The trituration (Bhavana) and Puta paka are repeated specific number of times until the metal/mineral converts into required Bhasma. It is not possible to completely convert metal/mineral into Bhasma by one Bhavana and Putapaka.
Therefore this process of Bhavana-Putapaka is repeated till complete conversion, from metal/mineral to Bhasma takes place.
When this process is repeated for 10 cycles (10 times incinerated) it is Das puti दसपुटी;100 cycles is shat puti शतपुटी;and for 1000 cycles (1000 times incinerated) is Sahsra Puti सहस्रपुटी. Abhra thus obtained is known as Shataputi, Pancha Shataputi, and Sahasraputi.
As the number of putas increases, the effectivity of Bhasma also increases. The greater number of putas help in making Bhasma more Ruksha (rough), Sukshma (fine), Jalaplava (floatable on water) and in producing vichitra-gunadeepti (wonderful properties).
According to ‘Rasendra Sara Sangraha’, 10 – 100 putas enhances vyadhihara/ disease curing property;100 – 500 putas produce Vajeekarana/ aphrodisiac property and the 100 – 1000 putas induce the Rasayana property.
Abhrak bhasma (Nishchandra): Nishchandra means not shining. Nischandra Abhraka Bhasma, is produced by special method mentioned in Ayurveda. It is less potent in comparison to Shatputi or Sahasraputi Abhrak Bhasma.
Abhraka is Biotite mica, a ferro-magnesium silicate K (Mg Fe) 3 X (Si3AlO11) X (OH) 2. It is a black variety of mica group of minerals.
Sanskrit names of Abhraka: Ghana, Vyoma, Abhra, Nishchandra, Vyomaka, Vajra, Vajrabhra
English: Powdered Talc, Biotite Calx.
Origin and occurrence: Abhraka occurs in igneous rocks in pure form as well as in metamorphic rocks as schists and gneisses. It occurs in ore form in pegmatites but pure mineral in sheet-form can be made available through sorting in pegmatite bodies. It is found in all igneous terrains of the earth’s crust. In India, it is obtained in white, brown and black colour.
In India, it occurs mostly in the mica belts of Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh and Jharkhand. The main deposits in these states occur at Ajmer, Bhilwara, Tonk and Pali in Rajasthan, Kalichedu, Thalpur and Gudur in Andhra Pradesh, Koderma and Giridih inJharkhand. Other known occurrences are in the states of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Kerala and West Bangal.
In Ayurvedic formulation Abhrak is not used without proper Shodhan and Maran. It is always used in form of Bhasma.
Types Mentioned in Ayurveda
- Ayurvedic texts describes four types of Abhrak viz. Pinak पिनाक, Dadur ददूर्र, Naag नाग and Vajra वज्र Abhrak.
- Pinak Abhrak: Its layers are opened when put in fire.
- Dadur Abhraka: Produces sound like frog (tarr-tarr) when put in fire.
- Nag Abhrak: Produces sound like snake when put in fire.
- Vajra Abhrak: Neither creates any type of sound nor changes its property upon burning. Vajrabhrak is used in Ayurveda for therapeutic use.
Benefits of Abhraka Bhasma
- It has alterative, aphrodisiac, anti-pyretic, carminative, hematinic, anticonvulsant, liver protective and rejuvenator properties.
- It is a powerful cellular regenerator. It helps in regeneration of cells.
- It is general tonic. It removes derangement of Vata, pitta and Kapha.
- It has significant anti-microbial properties.
- It is a tonic for nerves.
- It aphrodisiac and restores libido in men.
- It helps in production of sperms.
- It gives strength to the body. It promotes life and vigour.
- It cures respiratory ailments such as cough, cold, coryza and asthma.
- It increases the digestive fire.
- It is especially useful in leprosy.
- It boosts energy level.
- It gives strength to heart, brain, nerves and reproductive organs.
Shatputi Abhrak Bhasma is used in treatment of variety of diseases whereas Sahasraputi Abhrak Bhasma is used as a tonic and to prevent recurrence of diseases. In tuberculosis T.B. Shatputi Abhrak Bhasma is used.
Important Ayurvedic formulations containing Abhrak Bhasma
Abhrak Bhasma is used as single drug and also as compound formulation with other ingredients.
Lakshmi Vilas Ras
Plihari Vati for spleno-hepato diseases.
Prabhakar Vati for heart disease
Important Therapeutic Uses
- Agnimandya (Digestive impairment)
- Grahani (Malabsorption syndrome)
- Pliha (Splenic disease)
- Udara (Diseases of abdomen/ enlargement of abdomen)
- Krimi (Helminthiasis/Worm infestation)
- Diseases of liver
- Kapharoga (Disease due to Kapha dosha)
- Kasa (Cough)
- Shvasa (Dyspnoea/Asthma)
- Jvara (Fever)
- Raktapitta (Bleeding disorder)
- Prameha (Urinary disorders)
- Burning urination
- Retention of urine
- Renal diseases
- Pandu (Anemia)
- Kesha Patana (Falling of hair)
- Tvagroga (Skin disease)
- Jara (Senility/Progeriasis)
- Napunsakata (Impotency)
- Low sperm count
- Improving fertility and vigour
- Sexual weakness
- Kushtha (Diseases of skin)
- Granthi (Cyst), Visha (Poison)
Used as Rasayana (Nutrient to body and mind with adapto-immuno-neuro-endocrino-modulator properties)
In Hepatitis C, Nymphaea stellata seeds/ Indian blue water lily/ Indian water lily (250 mg), abhrak bhasma (250 mg), Piper longum/ Pippali (100 mg), Fumaria indica/ Pittapapra (100 mg), Tinospora cordifolia/ Giloy (100 mg), Boerhavia diffusa/ Punarnava (100 mg), Emblica officinalis/ Amla (100 mg) are mixed together and taken in dose of total 1 g three times/day.
The liver protecting action of Abhrak Bhasma, was studies in albino rats using a model of hepatitis induced by a single dose of CCl4. Use of Abhrak Bhasma, significantly reduced necrosis. Abhrak bhasma-treated animals that were exposed to CCl4 showed marked improvement in enzyme profile.
Dosage of Abhrak Bhasma
125 mg to 375 mg.
Adjuvant (also known as Anupana)
It is fluid vehicle with which medicine is to be taken.
Abhraka Bhasma is manufactured by Baidyanath (Abhrak Bhasma Sahasraputit and Abhrak Bhasma Shatputi), Dabur (Abhrak Bhasma Shatputi), Patanjali Divya Pharmacy (Divya Abhrak Bhasma), Manil (Abhrak Bhasma Nishchandr), Shri Dhootapapeshwar Limited (Abhraka Bhasma Shatputi/Sahasraputi) and many other Ayurvedic pharmacies.
Buwa, S., Patil, S., Kulkarni, P.H., and Kanase, A., Hepatoprotective action of abhrak bhasma, an Ayurvedic drug in albino rats against hepatitis induced by CCl4, Indian J. Exp. Biol., 39, 1022, 2001.
Indian Meteria Medica K. M. Nadkarni (1982). Bombay Popular Prakashan.
Sri Gopal Krishna, Rasendra Sara Sangraha, Satyartha Prakashika Hindi commentary by Vaidya Satyartha Prakash, Varanasi: Krishnadas Academy.