Guarana, Pasta Guarana or Brazilian cocoa is a South American woody climber belonging to Soap-nut or Soapberry family. Soap nut family contains a number of economic plants such as Litchi (Litchi chinensis), soap-nut trees (Sapindus mukotossi), Sugar Maple (Acer saccharinum), and many other plants distributed thoughout the tropical, and subtropical regions of world.
Guarana is a caffeine rich fruit. The seeds contains about 2.5-7% caffeine (twice the coffee beans), and used to make sports, and energy drinks. The concoctions of seeds are also used as aphrodisisac to boost libido.
Guarana seeds are collected from wild or cultivated plants. They are roasted to remove the seed coat. Kernels are separated from the shell, broken, and made into a paste with water, and dried for further use. Guarana is sold as sticks, powder, capsules, and extracts.
Due to the presence of caffeine, it is central nervous system CNS stimulant, and increases the activity in the brain, and causes wakefulness, and mental alertness. In Western coutries, Guaraná, is most commonly used in high-energy foods, and drinks, and dietary supplements.
Paullinia cupana is a scandent shrub or woody liana up to 5 m long with tendrils.
Stems are obtusely pentagonal, puberulent, with stem cross section exhibiting a single vascular cylinder. Leaves are pinnately 5-foliolate, alternate, chartaceous. Its minute stipules are deltoid, 2-3 mm long, tomentulose, persistent. Petiole, and rachis are unwinged, petiole 11-20 cm long, and rachis 7-12.5 cm long. The leaflet blades of P. cupana are elliptic or oblong-elliptic, 11 to 30 x 5.7 to 11 cm. The base of distal leaflet is cuneate or attenuate, acute, and obtuse to sub rounded on lateral leaflet. The apex narrows into an acute broad apiculum with rounded tip, and its margins are grossly crenate or sinuate dentate with a glandular tooth. The adaxial surface is glabrous, while the abaxial surface is sparsely, minutely pubescent, having microscopic scurfylike papillae. The tertiary venation is slightly sub-clathrate.
Inflorescences are thyrses, axillary, racemiform, solitary, puberulent, with cincinni sessile, 5-8-flowered. Flowers are unisexual, zygomorphic. The calyx has 5 green sepals, possessing minute glandular hair along the margin. Outer sepals are 2.5-3.2 mm long, while the inner sepals are about 4 mm long, tomentulose. The corolla has 4 white petals, oblong, 4-5.5 mm long., bearing a hoodshaped appendage.
Fruits are pear shaped, orange-red, and 3 sided with three-celled capsules, partially open when ripe, revealing 1-3 black or greenish seeds which are covered at the base with a white aril.
There are 2 varieties of species availabale, P. cupana, and P. sorbilis. Cupana differs from var. sorbilis in that it has no tendrils, its folioles are more strongly lobed, and its flowers, and fruit are bigger.
The botanical name of Guarana is Paullinia cupana. It belongs to plant family Sapindaceae. The name Guarana comes from Guaranis, a tribe of South American Indians, and the genus name, Paullinia was taken from a German medical botanist, C.F. Paullini, who ‘discovered’ the plant. Below is given taxonomical classification of the plant.
- Kingdom: Plantae – Plants
- Subkingdom: Tracheobionta – Vascular plants
- Superdivision: Spermatophyta – Seed plants
- Division: Magnoliophyta – Flowering plants
- Class: Magnoliopsida – Dicotyledons
- Subclass: Rosidae
- Order: Sapindales
- Family: Sapindaceae – Soapberry family
- Genus: Paullinia L. P
- Species: Paullinia cupana Kunth – guarana
Part(s) used for medicinal purpose: Roasted seeds
Plant type: Scandent shrub / woody evergreen climbing plant
Distribution: Amazon Basin in Brazil, Colombia, Uruguay, Venezuela
Main use: For making soft drinks, as medicine
Taken as: Tablets, Drinks
Vernacular Names / Synonyms
- Scientific name: Paullinia cupana H. B. & K
- English: Brazilian cocoa, Guarana
- Brazil: Guarana, Guarana sipo, Guarana uva
- Dutch: Guarana
- German: Guarana
- Peru: Cupana
- Venezuela: Cupana
Constituents of Paullinia cupana
Guarana contains 2.5–7.0% of caffeine, and about 12% tannins.
High amounts of methylxanthines, saponins, starch, polysaccharides, pigments, fats, and choline are present in seeds.
Basic composition of Guaraná beans
- Caffeine 4%
- Catechutannic acid 5%
- Catechic acid 0.6%
- Tannins 12%
- Starch 30%
- Protein 15%
- Oil 0.16%
- Calcium 0.08%
- Phosphorus 0.01%
- Magnesium 0.05%
- Kalium 0.27%
Essential oil: The essential oil isolated from powdered seeds contain 2 methylbenzenes, a cyclic monoterpene, 2 cyclic sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, 2 methoxyphenylpropenes, and 2 alkylphenol derivatives.
Important Medicinal Properties
Paullinia cupana is rich in medicinal properties. The understanding of these properties will help us to better utilize this herb. These also indicate the conditions in which we should avoid it.
Below is given medicinal properties along with the meaning.
- Analgesic: Relieve pain
- Anti-aggregant: Decrease platelet aggregation, and inhibit thrombus formation. Such medicines are effective in the arterial circulation, where anticoagulants have little effect.
- Anti-inflammatory: Reduce inflammation.
- Aphrodisiac: Stimulates sexual desire.
- Central nervous system (CNS) stimulant: speeds up physical, and mental processes.
- Diuretic: Causes increased passing of urine.
- Immunostimulant: Increase motility of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle.
- Stimulant: Temporarily increase alertness, and energy.
- Thermogenic: Increase the heat in the body.
- Tonic: Restore, tone, and invigorate systems in the body.
Medicinal Uses of Paullinia cupana (Guarana)
Guarana contains 2.5–7.0% of caffeine, and has all the effects of caffeine. It is used as a popular remedy for weight loss, loose motion, and fatigue. It prevents platelet aggregation. It stimulates gastric acid secretion, and thus helps in Dyspepsia. Guarana has diuretic effect which helps the body to get rid water retention. It gives relief in pain, and swelling in the body. Its analgesic effect is comparable to aspirin. It is used as stimulant, astringent, antipyretic, antineuralgic, antidiarrheal, and anti-influenza agent.
Guarana is used traditionally in the treatment of many disorders including:
- Boosting energy, and alertness
- Headache, Migraine
- Increasing stamina, and libido
- Neuralgia (intermittent pain along the course of a nerve, especially in the head or face)
- Urinary tract infections
- Water Retention
The Dosage of Paullinia cupana
- Dried herb is given in a dose of 500 mg to 1 gram. The tea prepared from the seeds can be taken three times a day.
- Guarana extract is taken in a dose of 200-800 mg before the meals, 2-3 times a day.
- The upper limit of Guarana extract is 3 grams. Do not exceed this amount.
Contraindications, Interactions, Side-effects, and Warnings Paullinia cupana
- Hazards and/or side effects not known for proper therapeutic dosages.
- It is a CNS-stimulant.
- It should not be used in excess or for a longer duration.
- It contains Caffeine which causes stimulation of vasoconstrictors, thus elevating the blood pressure, and increased blood flow. It can produce psychological dependence.
- Long-term use can may decreased fertility.
- It may cause nervousness, anxiety, trembling, insomnia, palpitations, urinary frequency, tachycardia, arrhythmias, hyperactivity, and irritability.
- It may interact with CNS stimulants, decongestants, methylphenidate, dextroamphetamine, beta2agonists, contraceptive pills, diabetes therapy, CNS depressants, and theophylline.
- Avoid its use in glaucoma.
- This is contraindicated in gastric disease, ulcers, cardiac disease, depression, anxiety, pregnancy, and breastfeeding, and in children.