Table of Contents
- 1 What is Insulin?
- 2 What happens with insulin resistance?
- 3 What are the causes of insulin resistance?
- 4 What is Pre Diabetes?
- 5 Symptoms of insulin resistance and prediabetes
- 6 Who should be tested for prediabetes?
- 7 Can insulin resistance and prediabetes be reversed?
What is Insulin?
Insulin is a hormone formed in the pancreas, the pancreas is an organ located behind the abdomen with groups of cells called islets. Beta cells inside the islets make insulin and leave it in the blood.
Insulin plays a major role in the way the body digests food for energy. The digestive system converts many substances such as carbohydrates-sugar and starch found in food into glucose. Glucose is a form of sugar that enters the bloodstream. With the help of insulin, cells throughout the body absorb glucose and use it for energy.
When glucose levels in the blood increase after meals, the pancreas releases insulin into the bloodstream. Insulin and glucose then reach the cells of the body from the blood.
- Insulin absorbs glucose from the bloodstream in muscle, fat and liver cells and lowers blood sugar levels.
- Insulin stimulates excess glucose to accumulate in the liver and muscle tissue. The stored form of glucose is called glycogen.
- Insulin also reduces blood sugar levels by reducing glucose production in the liver.
In a healthy person, these functions keep blood sugar and insulin levels at normal levels.
What happens with insulin resistance?
Insulin resistance, muscle, fat and liver cells do not react properly to insulin and thus glucose from the blood cannot be easily absorbed. As a result, glucose requires a high level of insulin to the body to enter cells.
Beta cells in the pancreas try to make more insulin for this increased demand for insulin. Blood sugar levels remain in the healthy category as long as beta cells can produce enough insulin to control insulin resistance.
Over time, insulin resistance can cause type 2 diabetes and prediabetes as beta cells are unable to meet the growing need for insulin. Without enough insulin, excess glucose grows in the bloodstream, which can lead to diabetes, prediabetes, and other serious health disorders.
What are the causes of insulin resistance?
Although the exact causes of insulin resistance have not been fully understood, scientists believe that the major contribution to insulin resistance is being overweight and physical inactivity.
Some experts believe that obesity, especially excess fat around the waist, is a leading cause of insulin resistance scientists believed that fat tissue functions as fully energy storage. However, studies have shown that the stomach produces fat hormones and other substances that can cause serious health problems such as insulin resistance, high blood pressure, unbalanced cholesterol, and heart disease (CVD).
Fat on the stomach causes prolonged inflammation in the body. Severe inflammation can damage the body with any symptoms or without any symptoms over time. This inflammation can cause insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and CVD. Studies show that weight loss can reduce insulin resistance and prevent or delay type 2 diabetes.
Many studies have shown that physical inactivity is associated with insulin resistance, which often causes type 2 diabetes in the body, more glucose is used by the muscles than other tissues. Generally, active muscles burn their stored glucose for energy.
Studies show that after exercising, muscles become more susceptible to insulin, can reduce insulin resistance and reduce blood sugar levels. Exercise also helps muscles to absorb more glucose without the need for insulin.
Other causes of insulin resistance may include genetics, diseases, hormones, steroid use, certain medications, increasing age, lack of sleep and smoking.
Does sleep also affect?
Yes, Studies show that sleep problems, especially sleep apnea, obesity problems can increase the risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. People who work at night may also increase these problems. Sleep apnea is a common disorder in which a person is obstructed during a breathing nap. People can often go from deep sleep and to mild sleep when their breathing stops.
Many people are not aware of their symptoms and are not diagnosed. Those who think that they may have sleep problems should talk to their doctor.
What is Pre Diabetes?
Pre-diabetes is a condition in which blood glucose or A1C levels represent higher than the normal level of average blood sugar, but not as much as diabetes levels. Prediabetes increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and CVD, which can lead to a heart attack.
Insulin resistance increases the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetes. Pre-diabetes is usually in people who already have insulin resistance. However, insulin resistance does not have type 2 diabetes alone. In pre-diabetes, beta cells do not have enough insulin to control insulin resistance, thereby going blood sugar levels above normal limits.
Once a person has prediabetes, there is a persistent loss of beta-cell leading to type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes mellitus has problems such as heart disease, stroke, blindness, kidney failure, etc.
Studies have shown that most people develop type 2 diabetes within 10 years with prediabetes unless they change their lifestyle.
Symptoms of insulin resistance and prediabetes
Insulin resistance and prediabetes are usually not symptoms people have one or both conditions can occur for several years, and people don’t even know it.
Black patches of skin in people with a severe form of insulin resistance usually can be behind the neck sometimes people have a deep rope around their neck dark patches can also appear on elbows, knees, knuckles, and armpits.
Who should be tested for prediabetes?
The risk for prediabetes in addition to being overweight or obese or 45 years of age
Factors that contain include the following:
- Physically idle people
- Parents or brothers having diabetes
- Gestational diabetes
- Hypertension -140/140 Being treated for 90 mmHg or more or higher blood pressure
- HDL cholesterol levels are 35 mg/km. DL or 250 mg/km More from DL
- Triglyceride is below the level
- Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)
Other conditions associated with insulin resistance, such as obesity.
If the test results are normal, the test should be repeated at least every 3 years.
In addition to weight gain, the location of excess fat on the body can be important. The waist of 40 inches for men and 35 inches or more for women, is linked to insulin resistance and increases the risk of type 2 diabetes.
Can insulin resistance and prediabetes be reversed?
Yes, Physical activity and weight loss help the body to respond better to insulin.
DPP and other large studies have proved that people with prediabetes can often prevent or delay diabetes if they lose weight by increasing fat and calorie intake and physical activity – for example, 30 minutes a day, walk 5 days a week.