Side-effects of Allopathic Blood Pressure Controlling Medicines

Learn about the side effects of BP controlling allopathic medicines.

Hypertension is the medical term for high blood pressure. Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing against the walls of the arteries as the heart pumps blood. In hypertension blood pressure remains above normal (>120/80 mmHg). It is a serious condition that leads to coronary heart disease, heart failure, stroke, kidney failure, and other health problems.

Blood Pressure Readings

StagesSystolicDiastolic
Prehypertension120–139OR80–89
High blood pressure Stage-1140–159OR90–99
High blood pressure Stage-2160 or higherOR100 or higher

In Allopathy many medicines are used to treat High Blood Pressure. Like every medicine, these have certain side-effects. It is important to know about the side-effects of these medicines. This page is about Side-effects of allopathic BP controlling medicines.

Alpha-Adrenergic Blocking Drugs (Alpha Blockers)

Alpha-Adrenergic Blocking Drugs (Alpha Blockers) mainly act on the brain (autonomic nervous system) on alpha receptors, causing dilatation of vessels and cause a lowering of BP.

Generic names (trade names)

  • Doxazosin (Cardura)
  • Prazosin (Minipress)
  • Terazosin (Hytrin)

Side effects

  • One major side effect of alpha-blockers is a drop in blood pressure when a person stands up abruptly.
  • This can cause fainting. So the main precaution is to avoid a sudden change in position.
  • Another side effect is nausea, headache, and palpitations.

Alpha and beta-blockers

Generic name (trade names)

  • Labetalol (Normodyne, Trandate)
  • It lowers blood pressure and relieves angina.

Side effects

  • Nausea
  • Indigestion
  • Cold hands and feet
  • Temporary impotence.
  • Dizziness
  • It should be used carefully by patients with asthma, lung disease, or diabetes.

Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (Ace) Inhibitors

These drugs produce the hormone angiotensin II which constricts blood vessels. This drug helps in dilatation of blood vessels causing a lowering of blood pressure.

Generic names (trade names)

  • Captopril (Capoten)
  • Enalapril (Vasotec)
  • Lisinopril (Prinivil, Zestril)

These mainly dilate blood vessels, improve the flow of blood, reduce the blood workload of the heart.

Side effects

  • Dizziness or weakness
  • Loss of appetite.
  • Itching
  • Cough
  • Swelling

Beta-Adrenergic Blocking Drugs (Beta Blockers)

These drugs reduce blood pressure by reducing the output of blood from the heart. These are used for angina and slow down the rate of the heart.

Generic names (trade names):

  • Acebutolol (Sectral)
  • Atenolol (Tenormin)
  • Metoprolol (Lopressor)
  • Nadolol (Corgard)
  • Pindolol (Visken)

These are useful for the treatment of high blood pressure, angina, abnormally high heartbeat, palpitation (ghabrahat) in Hindi, protect the heart from further damage after a heart attack, prevent migraine.

Side effects

  • Lethargy and weakness, loss of interest in doing day to day activity
  • Cold hand and feet
  • Nausea
  • Nightmare (bad dreams)
  • Impotence
  • Increase asthmatic attacks in patients suffering from asthma.

Calcium Channel Blockers

Generic name (trade name)

  • Diltiazem (Cardizem)
  • It reduces angina and lowers blood pressure.

Side effects

  • Headache,
  • Nausea,
  • Tiredness,
  • Ankle swelling,
  • Dizziness,
  • Skin rash

Generic names (trade names)

  • Nicardipine (Cardene)
  • Nifedipine (Procardia, Procardia XL)
  • It prevents angina attacks and lowers blood pressure.

Side effects

  • Redness of face and neck.
  • Headache,
  • Palpitations,
  • Dizziness,
  • Nausea,
  • Low blood pressure,
  • Ankle swelling,
  • Rash

Generic name (trade name)

  • Nimodipine (Nimotop)
  • It reduces the chances of stroke

Side effects

  • Dizziness or light-headedness,
  • Headache
  • Nausea
  • Fast heart rate
  • Skin rash
  • Swelling of the lower extremities

Generic name (trade names)

  • Verapamil (Calan, Isoptin, Verelan)
  • It decreases blood pressure, reduces angina attacks, and improves irregularities of the heart beat.

Side effects

  • Excessively slow heart rate,
  • Low blood pressure
  • Headache
  • Swelling of feet
  • Constipation

Generic name (trade name)

  • Nimodipine (Nimotop)
  • It helps in the constriction of blood pressure.

Side effects

  • Dizziness or light-headedness
  • Headache, nausea,
  • Fast heart rate,
  • Skin rash,
  • Swelling of feet

Generic name (trade names)

  • Verapamil (Calan, Isoptin, Verelan)
  • It prevents fast heart rate and other irregularities and chances of anginal attacks.

Side effects

  • Slow heart rate
  • Low blood pressure
  • Headache, swelling of feet,
  • Constipation

Centrally Acting Drugs

It helps of dilatation of blood vessels and hence lowers blood pressure.

Generic name (trade name)

Methyldopa (Aldomet)

Side effects

  • Dizziness or light-headedness,
  • Drowsiness
  • Headache
  • Dry mouth
  • Stuffy nose
  • Swelling of ankles or feet
  • Tiredness or weakness
  • Fever, depression

Diuretics

Diuretics are also known as water pills helps lowering blood pressure by increasing the kidney’s excretion of sodium and water.

Generic name (trade name):

Chlorthalidone (Hygroton)

Side effects

  • Weakness
  • Cramps
  • Skin rash
  • Impotence

Generic name (trade names):

Hydrochlorothiazide{Esidrix, Hydrodiuril, Oretic)

Side effects

  • Weakness
  • Cramps
  • Skin rash
  • Impotence

Generic name (trade names)

Metolazone (Diulo, Mykrox, Zaroxolyn)

Side effects

  • Weakness
  • Cramps
  • Skin rash
  • Impotence

Generic name (trade name):

Bumetanide (Bumex)

Side effects

  • Weakness
  • Cramps
  • Skin rash
  • Impotence

Generic name (trade name)

Furosemide (Lasix)

Side effects

  • Weakness
  • Cramps
  • Skin rash
  • Impotence

Generic name (trade name)

Amiloride (Midamor)

Side effects

  • Muscle weakness and numbness
  • Loss of sensation of hand and feet
  • Stomach upset
  • Weakness

Generic name (trade name)

Spironolactone (Aldactone)

Side effects

  • Muscle weakness and numbness
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Diarrhea
  • Lethargy,
  • Irregular menstruation,
  • Breast enlargement in men,
  • Impotence,
  • Rash

Peripheral Adrenergic Antagonists

Generic name (trade name):

Hydralazine (Apresoline)

Side effects

  • Nausea and vomiting,
  • Headaches
  • Dizziness
  • Irregular heartbeat
  • Loss of appetite,
  • Rash
  • Joint pains

Generic name (trade name)

Minoxidil (Loniten)

Side effects:

  • Hair growth, (face) back,
  • Shortness of breath.
  • Tiredness,
  • Dizziness or lightheadedness,
  • Nausea,
  • Headache,
  • Rash.

Generic name (trade name):

Amiloride/hydrochlorothiazide

Side effects

  • Abdominal pain
  • Irregular heartbeat
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Shortness of breath
  • Constipation
  • Dry mouth

Generic name (trade name)

Atenolol/Chlorthalidone (Tenoretic)

Side effects

  • Drowsiness
  • Nausea
  • Weakness
  • Headache
  • Loss of electrolytes
  • Slow heart rate
  • Low blood pressure
  • Cold extremities
  • Dizziness
  • Unusual dreams
  • Impotence
  • Sun sensitivity

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