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Mainphal, Madan, Emetic nut tree are few common names of the plant Randia dumetorum (synonym xeromphis spinosa) belonging to family Rubiaceae. Mainphal is used in various traditional medicine system for treatment of various ailments. This tree is found almost throughout India up to 4, 000 ft attitude. It is found in Himalaya, Dehradun, Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, South Maharashtra and costal districts of south India. It is a medicinal tree that treat cough, asthma, ulcers and many other ailments.
Latin name: Xeromphis Spinosa Synonym: Randia dumetorum Poir., R. spinosa Poir., R. brandisii Gamble., R. longispina;Catunaregam spinosa (Thumb.) Tirveng
Found in sub-Himalayan tracts extending eastwards in Sikkim up to 1200 m and southwards to Peninsular India.
Vernacular names of Madan or Randia dumetorum
Sanskrit: Madani, Madana, Vamanaphala, Teevragandhi, Assamese: Maen, Bengali: Mainaphal, Mayanaphal, English: Emetic nut, Gujrati: Mindhal, Mindhol, Mindhar, Hindi: Manphal, Kannada: Mangarikai, Karigidda, Madanaphala Maggrekai, Kari, Maggare Kayi, Kashmiri: Madanfal, Malayalam: Malankara, Malamkarakka, Marathi: Gal, Galphala, Giephala, Madanphala, Oriya: Maena, Madana, Punjabi: Mindhal, Rara, Manphal, Tamil: Marukkarai, Telugu: Mranga Kaya, Monga Kaya, Urdu: Mainphal, Jauz-ul-Qai, Ayurvedic names: Madana, Chhardana, Pindi, Shalayaka, Vishapushpaka, Unani: Mainphal, Jauz-ul-Qai, Siddha: Marukkaaraikai, Madkarai, Folk: Mainphal, Arabic: Jauzulaki, Jijul kai
Small deciduous tree, shrubby with stout axillary spins;Leaves: fascicled on the suppressed branches, 3.2-5.7 cm long, obovate, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, roundish or shortly obtuse;Flowers: subsessile in axillary fascicles;corolla 2 cm long, at first white, afterwards becoming yellow;Fruit: about 4 cm across, a yellowish berry, globose or broadly ovoid, crowned with the large calyx limb.
Ayurvedic properties and action
- Rasa (Taste): Tikta/Bitter, Madhura/Sweet
- Guna (Characteristics): Laghu/Light, Ruksha/Dry,
- Virya (Potency): Ushna/Hot
- Vipaka (Post Digestive Effect): Katu/Pungent
- Action on body
- Vaman (induce vomiting) and Lekhana (reduce fatty tissue and support weight loss)
Medicinal uses of Randia dumetorum
In Ayurveda, various parts of Randia dumetorum or Madan phala/Mainphal are used to pacify vitiated Pitta and kapha/mucous, and to treat cough, skin diseases, ulcers, asthma, flatulence, colic. The fruit is especially used as a medicine for emesis therapy (treating by inducing vomiting). The fruit of the plant has anti-inflammatory/ inflammation reducing, emetic/inducing vomiting and abortifacient/abortion causing properties. The tree bark is applied externally to relieve pain of bruises and rheumatism.
Some diseases occur due to vitiation of vata and kapha. For treating such ailments, take 2-3 mainphal. Remove outer skin. Crush them and soak in half cup water at night. Next morning, mash the fruit and filter the water. Drink this to induce vomiting.
The traditional remedy is to mix dried powder of Mainphal, Arka mula bark, and Mulheti in equal amount. Taking 2 grams of this powder gives relief in asthma.
- In hot water, add Mainphal seed powder, Sendha namak (each 6 g) and Pippali churna (1 g). Drink this to induce vomiting to get relief from excessive Pitta and kapha.
- Soak Mainphal seed powder (3-6g) in water (25 ml) for an hour. Grind in mortar and pestle. Add honey and sendha namak and drink empty stomach.
- The powder of seeds in a dose of 2-4 grams with water can also be used.
Make paste of the fruit with vinegar and apply externally around naval.
The Dose of Mainphal or Randia dumetorum
0.5 -1.0 g of the drug in powder form for decoction. 3-6 g of the drug for induction of vomiting