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Manilkara hexandra tree is an evergreen tree native to India. Its few very common names are Ksheerni, Khirni, Rayan etc. It bears nutritive edible fruits. In Ayurveda, its bark and fruits are used for treatment of wide range of diseases. Its bark is especially useful in treating gum problems and dental disorders such as bleeding gums, gum inflammation, sudden discharge of blood from gums, odontopathy etc. Its tender parts are used as tooth brush.
The bark and seed coat are used for strengthening the gum. It is used under the name of Vajradanti, in preparation of various herbal tooth powders along with many other ingredients such as catechu, pomegranate bark etc. The bark is also used to treat fever, gas, stomach disorders, jaundice, deworming etc. Its fruits are eaten raw. They are useful in hallucinations, loss of consciousness, anorexia, bronchitis, leprosy and vitiated conditions of pitta.
The botanical name of Khirni is Manilkara hexandra (Roxb.) Dubard, and it belongs to the family Sapotaceae or Mahua-family (Plant family Sapotaceae consists of trees/ shrubs with milky latex. It include about 70 genera and 800 species. The characteristic feature of member of this family is presence of reddish brown hairs on the leaf undersides and other plant surfaces). The synonyms of specie is Mimusops hexandra Roxb.
Ayurvedic Name: Ksirini, Ksheerini, Rajadan, Rajnya, Rajadanah HINDI: Khirni, Khhini, Rayan BENGALI: Ksheerni, Rajni GUJRATI: Rayan MALAYALAM: Krini and Palamunpala KANNADA: Hale, Hannu TAMIL: Kanupala, Kaattuppala, Ulakkaippalai, Palai TELUGU:;Patla, Pola, Kirni ENGLISH: Obtuse leaved Mimuspos
Part used for medicinal purpose: Fruit, bark
Native of: Central India and Deccan peninsula.
Distribution in India: This tree is found in central India and Deccan Peninsula, and cultivated throughout India.
Small to medium sized glabrous evergreen tree, 50–60 ft. in height with smooth blackish grey bark;leaves 7–10 cm long, elliptic, obovate or oblong, simple, alternate, rounded or emarginate at the apex, glabrous on both sides, main nerves 12-20 pairs;flowers bisexual, white or pale yellow, calyx 6–lobed, corolla 16 or 24–lobed, stamens 6, axillary, solitary or in fascicles;fruits hairy, one seeded reddish yellow berries, ovoid or ellipsoid, seeds ovoid, reddish brown with shining testa.
Phytoconstituents present in tree parts
Part of tree
|Sterols, Volatile oil and Tannis||Leaves|
|Cinnamic acid, Hentriacontane Taraxerol and Quercitol||Leaves|
|Saponin 1, 2 and 3, Gallic acid, Myrecetin, and Quercetin||Seeds|
|Unsaponifiable lipids, Alcohols, Hydrocarbons, Triterpene and Sterols||Seeds|
|Proteins, Lipids and Carbohydrates||Fruits|
|α– and β– Amyrins, Taraxerol α–spinasterol||Roots|
Traditional Medicinal Uses of Khirni or Rayan tree
The Bark: Bark of tree is astringent, sweet, cooling, aphrodisiac, alexipharmic, stomachic/stimulates digestion and anthelmintic. Bark is useful in ulorrhagia (sudden or free discharge of blood from the gums), gingivitis (gum inflammation), odontopathy (any disease of the teeth), fever, flatulence, colic (abdominal pain), dyspepsia (painful, difficult, or disturbed digestion, which may be accompanied by symptoms such as nausea and vomiting, heartburn, bloating, and stomach discomfort.), helminthiasis ( infestation with parasitic worms), hyperdipsia (intense thirst of relatively brief duration), burning sensation and vitiated conditions of pitta.
Decoction of bark is used for treatment of dysentery and diarrhea.
Stem bark extract is also used a tonic.
The Fruits: The fruits are milky, sweet, sour, cooling, aphrodisiac, appetizer, emollient and tonic.
Fruits are used to relieve digestive disorder.
Mashed fruits are taken to cure diseases like arthritis, jaundice, heat burning, deworming, and to blood purification.
Latex and seed:The latex of tree is applied on teeth and gums for toothaches. The seeds are useful in ulcers and the opacity of the cornea.