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Danti is a medicinal herb. It is a leafy undershrub, found in outer range of Himalayas from Kashmir to Assam and in moist deciduous forests all over the India. For medicinal purpose mainly the Dantimool or dried root of plant are used. The roots are purgative, pungent, heating, and antiparasitic. They are used in treatment of anasarca (extreme generalized edema), jaundice, constipation, piles, calculus, scabies, skin disorders, suppurative ulcers and diseases caused by the vitiation of Kapha and Pitta. The roots and seeds have purgative action. The paste of roots is applied externally on painful swellings and piles. The leaves and seeds are also used for medicinal purpose.
The botanical name of Danti is Baliospermum montanum Muell. Arg. It belongs to plant family Euphorbiaceae.
- Baliospermum axillare BLUME
- Baliospermum montanum (WILLD.) MUELL.-ARG.
- Croton polyandrum ROXB.
- Jatropha montana WILLD.
Part(s) used for medicinal purpose: Roots, leaves, and seeds.
Plant type: under-shrub 0.9-1.8m in height.
Distribution: throughout tropical and subtropical areas receiving rainfall above 1000 mm, in Himalayan foothills, Kashmir to Khasi hills, and particularly in Vindhyas southward. It is very common in North and East Bengal, Chota Nagpur, and peninsular India.
Habitat: shade loving plant, grows well in humid climate.
The plant is a stout, monoecious undershrub up to 3.5 m high, with toothed leaves and stiff branches arising from the root. The upper branches bear small, lanceolate leaves, while the lower branches have large, and often broad, ovate, three- to five-lobed leaves with rounded base. Petioles are 5–15 cm long. The flowers of the plant are unisexual. In male flowers, the calyx is globose, 2.5 mm long, four to five partite, glabrous or slightly pubescent, membranous, finely mottled with a disc of six glands. Stamens are about 20 in number. Female flowers have ovate-lanceolate and pubescent sepals, and a disc about 2.5 mm in diameter. Fruit is a three-lobed capsule, about 8–13 mm long and usually hairy. Seeds are mottled, smooth, and have oily endosperm. Flowers appear during January–February, while fruits mature a month later.
Sanskrit: Anukheti, Anukula, Artagala, Bhadra, Danti, Danti-Nana, Dantika, Dravanti, Erandapatri, Erandaphala, Gunapriya, Jayapala, Kakubha, Kumbhachitra, Kumbhi, Kurantaka, Makunaka, Mukulaka, Nagadanti, Nagasphota, Nepala, Nikumba, Nikumbha, Nikumbhah, Nikumbhi, Nishalya, Nishkumbha, Pratyakparni, Pratyaksreni, Raktadanti, Rechani, Ruksha, Shwetaghanta, Shyenaghanta, Sighra, Taruni, Udumbaraparni, Upachitra, Upakulya, Varahangi, Vishalya, Vishodhini, Jangli-Jamalgota.
Hindi: Dante, Danti, Hakni, Hakum, Hakun, Hakuna, Jangli Jamalghota, Jangli-Jamalgota.
Kannada: Danthi, Danti, Dantika, Kaadu Haralu, Kaduharalu, Naaga Danti, Naagadanthi
Malayalam: Danti, Dantika, Katalavanakku, Naga-Danti, Nagadanti, Nakadanti, Nervalam, Niradimuttu, Niratimuttu.
Marathi: Buktumbo, Danti, Jamalgot.
Tamil: Appaiccevakacceti, Appaiccevakam, Cimai Amanakku, Cimaiyamanakku, Ilantanamanakku, Kanniyucari, Kanniyucaricceti, Kattamanakku, Kattamanakku, Kattamankku, Kumpam, Maniyamanakku, Maniyamanakkucceti, Nagdanti, Nakatanti, Nepalam, Nir Adimuttu, Niradimuttu, Niratimuttu, Nirettimuttu, Nirvetti, Parankiyamanakku, Peyamanakku, Shimai-Amanakku, Timpalai, Turuvati.
Telugu: Erradundiga, Ettadundiga, Kanaka Pata, Kanakapaata, Kanakapata, Kondamudamu, Neelajidi, Nela Jidi, Nelajidi.
Trade Name: Danti, Jangli Jamalgota
Constituents of Danti roots
Roots contain diterpenes, baliospermin, montanin, phorbol-12-deoxy-13-O-palmitate, phorbol-12-deoxy-16-hydroxy-13-O-palmitate and phorbol-12-deoxy-5b-hydroxy-13 – myristate.
Alcoholic extract of plant showed hypotensive (blood pressure lowering) activity in experimental animals.
Dosage of root power: 1-3 grams.
Ayurvedic Properties and Action
Rasa (taste on tongue): Katu (Pungent)
Guna (Pharmacological Action): Laghu (Light), Tikshna (Sharp), Sara
Virya: Ushna (Heating)
Vipaka (transformed state after digestion): Katu (Pungent)
Action: Shodhak, Deepan, Kapaha-har, Raktdosh-har, Rochak, Vran
Danti is used in treatment of diseases of skin, burning, swelling, abdominal diseases, intestinal parasites, piles, stones, itching, wound, Gulma, jaundice.
Ayurvedic medicines containing Danti: Dantyarishta, Dantiharitakileham, Kaishora guggulu gulika.
Medicinal Properties of Danti roots
- Antipyretic/antifebrile/febrifuge: Effective against fever.
- Anthelmintic: expel parasitic worms (helminths) and other internal parasites from the body.
- Analgesic: acting to relieve pain.
- Anti-inflammatory: Reducing inflammation by acting on body mechanisms.
- Anodyne: Relieves pain without causing loss of consciousness.
- Diuretic: Promoting excretion of urine/agent that increases the amount of urine excreted.
- Diaphoretic: promote sweating.
- Thermogenic: Heating.
- Purgative, Cathartic: strongly laxative in effect.
- Rubefacient: produces redness of the skin on topical application by causing dilation of the capillaries and an increase in blood circulation.
- Seeds are purgative, stimulant, rubefacient and antidote for snakebite.
- Seeds are poisonous in larger dosage.
- Seed oil is anti-rheumatic. Leaf is anti-asthmatic and wound healing.
- Root and seed oil is cathartic and anti-dropsy.
Medicinal Uses of Danti
- The roots and leaves of Danti herb are heating, purgative, anti-parasitic and diuretic/stimulates urine production.
- For obstinate constipation, the root powder is prescribed.
- The seed is given in dose of one seed as drastic purgative. Larger dose of seeds is poisonous.
- The roots are used in treatment of diseases of liver (dropsy, anascara, and jaundice).
- The decoction of roots is given in treatment of pitta-jwar.
- The decoction of roots detoxifies body and helps to cure diseases of skin.
- For asthma, the decoction of leaves is used.
- The paste of leaves is applied topically on wounds to hasten healing.
- The seed oil is rubefacient and used topically in rheumatism and joint pain.