Khurasani Ajwain/ Khorasni Yavani/ Ajwain Khurasani is the seeds of plant Hyoscyamus niger belonging to nightshade family or Solanaceae. This family consists of about 98 genera and some 2, 700 species of plant. Some of the plants belonging to this family are highly toxic like Datura, Mandragora and Atropa belladonna (deadly nightshade). Khurasani Ajwain is also known as stinking nightshade or black henbane. This plant is also toxic.
Khurasani ajwain is native of Khurasan, Iran. It is used in Ayurveda and Unani medicine system for treatment of variety of diseases. It is also used as substitute of opium because of its hypnotic, hallucinogenic, narcotic, and sedative properties. Every part of Khurasani ajwain plant contains alkaloids. These alkaloid can cause increase in heart rate and respiratory rate, dilation of pupil, excitement, and seizures. It is always used in recommended low dosage only.
Khurasani ajwain is hot in potency and digestive in nature. It has astringent and narcotic effect. Due to its narcotic and sedative effect Khurasani ajwain is used for calming the mind and inducing sleep. In Unani medicine system the seeds of Khurasani ajwain are first detoxified and then used. For this purpose, the seeds are soaked in vinegar for three consecutive night and then dried and powdered. This powder is used for medicinal purpose.
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Order: Solanales
- Family: Solanaceae
- Genus: Hyoscyamus
- Species: H. niger
- Binomial name: Hyoscyamus niger
- AYURVEDIC/SANSKRIT NAME: Parasika Yavni, Parseekyavaani, Madkarini, Khurashanika, Khurasani ajwain
- UNANI: Barz-ul-Banj, Bazrulbanj, Khurasani Ajwayin
- SIDDHA: Parsekayavani, Khurasani Omam
- ENGLISH: Indian Henbane, Black Henbane
- BENGALI: Khorasani ajwan
- GUJRATI: Khurasanee ajma, Khurasanee ajmo
- HINDI: Khurasanee ajvayan,
- KANNADA: Khurasanee, Ajawaana
- MALAYALAM: Khurasaanee, Paarasika, Yavaani
- MARATHI: Khurasanee ova
- PUNJABI: Khurasanee ajvain, Bangidewana
- TAMIL: Kuraasanee Yomam
- TELUGU: Kurasanee vamu, Khurasanee omam
- URDU: Ajvayanee Khursanee
HABITAT: Central and southern Europe, Western Asia, Siberia. Main source Baluchistan and Afghanistan.
In India, it occurs in the temperate Himalayas from Kashmir to Garhwal.
Hyoscyamine, hyoscine, isomeric N-oxides of hyoscyamine (equatorial and axial), hyoscine-N-oxide (equatorial isomer), tropine;16á- acetoxyhyoscyamilactol, daturalactone-4, hyoscyamilactol;cannabisin D, cannabisin G, grossamide, hyoscyamide;rutin;daucosterol, ßsitosterol, myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acids, 1-O- (9Z, 12Z-octadecadienoyl) glycerol, 1-O-octadecanoylglycerol, 1-O- (9Z-12Z-octadecadienoyl) -3O-(9Z-Octadecenoyl) glycerol, 1-O- (9Z, 12Z-octadecadienoyl) -3-O-nonadecanoyl glycerol, 1-O-(9Z, 12Zoctadecadienoyl)-2-O- (9Z, 12Z-octadecadienoyl) glycerol, N-trans-feruloyl tyramine, 1, 24-tetracosanediol diferulate and vanillic acid.
DESCRIPTION OF SEEDS:
Seeds irregularly reniform or sub-quadrate, slightly over a mm. in size, dark grey, surface concave, odour pleasantly aromatic;taste bitter, mucilaginous and pungent.
Ayurvedic Properties and Action on body
- Rasa (Taste): Tikta/Bitter, Katu (pungent)
- Guna (Characteristics): Guru/Heavy, Ruksha/Dry
- Virya (Potency): Ushna/Hot
- Vipaka (Post Digestive Effect): Katu/Pungent
Action on body:
- Dipana/ deepana (Digestive stimulant)
- Grahi (Anti-diarrhea, binds stool)
- Pachana (digest ama/toxins)
- Pitta-kara (increases pitta)
- Kapha-hara (reduces mucous)
- Vata-har (Reduce vata dosha)
- Madak (intoxicating)
- Nidra-karak (induces sleep)
- THERAPEUTIC USES IN AYURVEDA
- Stones, pain, asthma, gulma, intestinal parasites, intoxicated, nightfall/nocturnal emission, insomnia, joint pain and pain in abdomen.
IMPORTANT MEDICINAL PROPERTIES OF KHURASANI AJWAIN
- Anaphrodisiac: reduces sexual libido/desire.
- Anodyne: pain relieving.
- Anthelmintic: destroy parasitic worms.
- Anti-rheumatic: gives relief in rheumatism.
- Antiseptic: prevents the growth of disease-causing microorganisms.
- Hypnotic: producing hypnosis/ sleep-inducing.
- Sedative/intoxicant: promoting calm.
- Antispasmodic (prevents or relieves spasms/cramps).
- Anticholinergic: Agents that block the action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the brain. They are used to treat diseases like asthma, incontinence, gastrointestinal cramps, and muscular spasms.
- Carminative: relieves gas in the alimentary tract (colic or flatulence or griping).
- Astringent: Constricts soft organic tissue.
Recommended Dosage of Khurasani Ajwain:125-500mg.
Medicinal Uses of Khurasani Ajwain
Insomnia due to stress
Prepare a powder by mixing powder of Amla, Brahmi, Shankhpushpi, Shatavari, Ashwagandha, and Khurasani ajwain in equal amount. Take this powder in dose of 3grams with milk. Take daily for three months.
Pain in ear
Cook seeds of Khurasani ajwain in sesame oil. Let it cool and instill few drops in ear.
Intestinal parasites, roundworm
For parasitic infestation, eat 10gram jaggery empty stomach in the morning. After that eat 200-500mg of its seeds powder.
Urinary problems, stones
The Satva of seeds is given in dose of 12 drops, 3-4 times a day.
Rheumatic pain, joint pain
The seeds are cooked in sesame oil and massaged on affected body area.
Pain in liver
The seeds oil is applied externally on affected area.
CAUTION, SIDE-EFFECTS and CONTRAINDICATIONS
Contraindicated in Tachycardia (Fast Heartbeat), Prostatic Hyperplasia (Noncancerous Enlargement Of The Prostate Gland), Glaucoma (Increased Pressure Within The Eyeball, Causing Gradual Loss Of Sight), Acute Pulmonary Oedema (Excess Fluid In The Lungs) And Stenosis Of Gastrointestinal Tract (Obstruction Of GI Tract).
Overdoses may cause Arrhythmia (Heart Beats with an Irregular or Abnormal Rhythm), Deliria (Disturbance Of Consciousness), Dysuria (Painful Or Difficult Urination), Erythema (Reddening Of The Skin), Hallucinogens, Lethargy, Mania, Mydriasis (Dilation Of The Pupil Of The Eye), Obstipation (Severe Or Complete Constipation), Tachycardia (Abnormally Rapid Heart Rate), Visual Disturbance, Water Retention, And Dry Mouth.
- The high dosage of Khurasani ajwain is harmful for heart. It increases blood pressure and heart rate.
- Khurasani ajwain reduces libido.
- Always take in recommended dose.